doi: 10.56294/saludcyt2023456




The Evolution of Nursing Practice from Florence Nightingale to Modern Nursing


Evolución de la práctica enfermera desde Florence Nightingale hasta la enfermería moderna


Renuka Jyothi R1 e9815d877cd092a19918df74e04f0415_400x400 *, Poonam Sharma2 e9815d877cd092a19918df74e04f0415_400x400 *, Bulbul Chaudhary3 e9815d877cd092a19918df74e04f0415_400x400 *


1JAIN (Deemed-to-be University), Department of Life Sciences. Karnataka, India.

2Teerthanker Mahaveer University, College of Nursing. Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India.

3ATLAS SkillTech University, ISDI - School of Design & Innovation. Mumbai, India.


Cite as: Jyothi R R, Sharma P, Chaudhary B. Evolución de la práctica enfermera desde Florence Nightingale hasta la enfermería moderna. Salud, Ciencia y Tecnología. 2023;3(S1):456.  


Submitted: 10-06-2023                        Revised: 14-07-2023                                       Accepted: 01-08-2023                       Published: 02-08-2023


Editor: Dr. William Castillo-González e9815d877cd092a19918df74e04f0415_400x400

Associate Editor: Fasi Ahamad Shaik e9815d877cd092a19918df74e04f0415_400x400




To consider Florence Nightingale’s social entrepreneurship and the evolution of modern and current nursing. This sensible intelligent show, which depends on readings of texts separated from electronic information bases, especially periodicals, books, and postulations, underscores the hypothetical underpinnings of social business and Florence Nightingale inheritance from current to contemporary nursing. Brazilian nursing’s evolution from innovation to contemporaneity. The display’s key subjects are the development of Brazilian nursing from innovation to contemporaneity and Florence Nightingale  effect as a social business visionary. The influence of Florence Nightingale on the development of modern and current nursing is evident and cuts across many other fields of study. It was a forerunner of modern nursing and stands out for its visionary outlook, humanistic social value, and capacity to change the realities and courses of the contemporary day.


Keywords: Nursing; Nursing Care; Contributions; Modern History; Nurse’s Role.




Considerar el empresariado social de Florence Nightingale y la evolución de la enfermería moderna y actual. Esta sensible muestra inteligente, que depende de lecturas de textos separados de bases de información electrónica, especialmente periódicos, libros y postulados, subraya los fundamentos hipotéticos del empresariado social y la herencia de Florence Nightingale de la enfermería actual a la contemporaneidad. Evolución de la enfermería brasileña de la innovación a la contemporaneidad. Los temas clave de la exposición son la evolución de la enfermería brasileña de la innovación a la contemporaneidad y el efecto de Florence Nightingale como visionaria del social business. La influencia de Florence Nightingale en el desarrollo de la enfermería moderna y actual es evidente y atraviesa muchos otros campos de estudio. Fue precursora de la enfermería moderna y se destaca por su visión visionaria, valor social humanista y capacidad de cambiar las realidades y los rumbos de la contemporaneidad.


Palabras clave: Enfermería; Cuidados de Enfermería; Aportaciones; Historia Moderna; Papel de la Enfermera.





Significant improvements in healthcare, alterations in cultural beliefs, and the professionalization of nursing as a separate discipline have all shaped the history of nursing practice from Florence Nightingale to contemporary nursing.(1) Nurture professionals (NPs), guaranteed nurture birthing assistants (CNMs), clinical medical attendant subject matter experts (CNSs), and nurture anesthetists (CRNAs) are instances of cutting-edge practice callings that have arisen in present-day nursing. These advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) can provide comprehensive, specialized treatment and frequently collaborate with other healthcare professionals due to their additional education and training. Nurses can plan care, make decisions, and set goals together with patients and their families. Cultural competency is becoming increasingly important as nurses strive to provide care that is considerate, sensitive, and in line with the cultural beliefs, attitudes, and practices of their patients.(2) The establishment of the Nightingale Training School for Nurses by Nightingale was a significant step toward the profession’s professionalization and advancement. She laid the groundwork for the development of nursing as a distinct profession with a body of specialized knowledge and skills by providing formal education and professional training. Modern nursing education builds on this legacy to prepare nurses to meet the diverse populations’ complex healthcare needs.(3) The provocateur of present-day nursing because of her spearheading work and huge commitment to the field. Although various societies have cared for the sick and injured throughout history, Nightingale’s contributions led to significant advancements and reforms that shaped the nursing profession today. Nightingale is regarded as the father of modern nursing for the following significant reasons: A methodical and scientific approach to nursing practice was pioneered by Nightingale. She emphasized the significance of infection control, sanitation, and hygiene during the Crimean War, resulting in significant reductions in wounded soldier mortality rates. Her observations and data-driven approach made it clear that practice that is based on evidence is necessary and set the stage for modern healthcare.(4) During the ongoing pandemic, the limitations and well-being estimates set up to forestall the spread of Coronavirus have tragically brought about circumstances where families can’t be available with their friends and family who are passing on. This has been a difficult and troubling experience for some people and families. Hospitals and healthcare facilities have strict infection control measures in place, including restricting visitor access, to reduce the likelihood of transmission. Patients, healthcare providers, and the general public are all at risk without these precautions.(5) Hospitals and healthcare organizations have realized that families who are unable to be present for their loved ones require emotional support. To assist families in coping with the emotional impact of being separated during this trying time, they have implemented a variety of support services, including chaplaincy services, counseling, and bereavement support.

Exceptions for Compassion in some instances, healthcare facilities may make compassionate exceptions to the visitor restrictions, allowing patients who are nearing the end of their lives to have limited access to visitors. These choices are regularly presented on a defense-by-case premise, taking into account the patient's condition, risk factors, and the security of all interested parties.(6) The pandemic has sped up the utilization of telehealth administrations and computerized well-being advances. Nurses have played a crucial role in teleconsultations, patient monitoring, and remote care delivery. It is anticipated that the nursing profession will embrace these technologies and develop them further, incorporating them into routine practice and expanding their application to underserved populations. Support for Emotional Wellness and Prosperity The pandemic affects psychological well-being, with an expansion in the commonness of despondency, nervousness, and stress. Nurses are the ones who set the stage for mental health interventions and support. Mental health care may be more heavily incorporated into nursing practice in the not-too-distant future. This will guarantee that nurses receive the necessary education and support to meet patients and their own mental health needs.(7) In addition to her time at Kaiserswerth, Nightingale's observations and subsequent reforms in nursing and healthcare administration were not limited there. Her work during the Crimean War, where she drove a group of attendants and executed critical upgrades in sterilization and patient consideration, further molded how she might interpret nursing and medical services rehearses. Although Nightingale's visit to the Institution of Protestant Deaconesses in Kaiserswerth, Germany, was significant on its own, it was only one step in a much longer journey that ultimately led her to become a pioneer in contemporary nursing and healthcare administration.(8) A holistic and individualized approach was incorporated into Nightingale's care model. She understood the significance of tailoring care to each patient's specific requirements and the individuality of each patient. Her understanding of how health and the environment are intertwined matched her emphasis on social, psychological, and physical well-being. Nightingale model of care was established in proof-based practice, albeit the term was not utilized during her time. To support her suggestions for improving healthcare outcomes, she gathered data, made observations, and looked at statistics. The incorporation of research and evidence into nursing practice was facilitated by her emphasis on the significance of data-driven decision-making.(9) To shape future educational approaches and enhance patient care, it is essential to investigate the historical development of a profession's education. It supports adaptation to a shifting healthcare landscape, encourages interprofessional collaboration, and bolsters the integration of evidence-based practice. Additionally, it assists in identifying gaps, strengths, and challenges. We can develop novel educational solutions that meet the needs of the profession and improve patient care in the future by learning from the past.(10) Programs for nursing education are based on nursing theories. They provide students with a theoretical framework for comprehending the fundamental nursing concepts, values, and principles. Students gain a deeper understanding of the profession and a solid foundation of knowledge by studying nursing theories. Nursing hypotheses guide research in the field. Analysts use nursing speculations to figure out research questions, plan studies, and investigate information. The theories make it easier for researchers to investigate a variety of aspects of nursing, including patient outcomes, nursing interventions, and the effect of nursing care on patient well-being.(11) Theories of nursing guide and influence practice. They give nurses a framework for clinical decision-making and patient care planning. By utilizing nursing hypotheses, attendants can evaluate patients, recognize their requirements, and foster fitting nursing intercessions to advance wellbeing, forestall disease, and work with recuperation. Nursing speculations act as a reason for giving all encompassing and patient-focused care. They emphasize the significance of considering the psychosocial, emotional, and spiritual dimensions of care in addition to the physical aspects. Nursing theories assist nurses in comprehending the distinct requirements of each patient and providing individualized care that meets those requirements.(12) Advances in education, specialization, technology, and a shift toward patient-centered, evidence-based care have characterized the transition from Florence Nightingale to modern nursing practice. Nurses are essential to the delivery of healthcare because of their adaptability to shifting requirements and contribute to improved patient.



The inheritance that Florence Nightingale’s abandoned and how she assisted attendants with deliberate reflection and comprehensively. The teachings and way of thinking of Florence Nightingale’semphasize that the medical assistant should carefully consider the patient's mind, heart, and hands when creating recuperating conditions to truly focus on the patient dead body, brain, and heart. Since Nightingale's instance, treatment.(11) The work in nursing care, nursing, health, and public policy has served as a steadfast foundation for practices in cultures all over the world. This essay places a special emphasis on the description of a larger, but less well-known, medicine chest that is believed to have belonged to Florence. It is located in the College of Nursing at the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.(12) Nursing got its start with the empirical care that religious women, witches, and priests gave their families for a long time. Nightingale a movement and Florence Nightingale's innovations in nursing. Florence, the trailblazer of present-day nursing, rose to unmistakable quality after filling in as a worker in the Crimean War. She organized care and energized schooling, breaking orientation generalizations about ladies in the military and changing how society sees the field.(13) Understanding Florence Nightingale's nursing philosophies and practices and making recommendations for future nursing practice, instruction, research, and health policy can all be accomplished by learning more about her accomplishments. To meet societal needs, modern nurses must emulate Nightingale's bold actions, in which she seized the circumstances of her time and utilized cutting-edge scientific methods.(14) The opportunity to think about her life and her achievements. She is most well-known for laying the groundwork for modern nursing throughout the British Empire and later the rest of the world. Notwithstanding her contribution to the Crimean War, she likewise fostered an expert nursing preparation program, delivered the primary nursing course reading, and upheld freely for medical care and beneficent giving. She actively advocated for women's rights and social justice.(15) Florence Nightingale’s assumed an essential part in changing nursing by underlining the significance of cleanliness, disinfection, and a perfect climate in persistent consideration. During the Crimean War, she and her group of medical caretakers essentially worked on quiet results by carrying out fundamental disease control works, prompting a reduction in death rates. The efforts of Nightingale brought to light the need for evidence-based practices, professional training, and nursing education.



A rationally intelligent show is Florence Nightingale’s family and how nursing has changed over time. It is supported by reading of texts taken from electronic databases, particularly periodicals, books, and thesis. This exercise attempts to make connections between Nightingale's enduring past and his or her entrepreneurial skills as the protagonist of a new nursing novel. To support the essential changes in nursing employees and healthcare environments, it is essential to demonstrate the value of nursing both individually and collectively.


Florence nightingale and contemporary euphemism

The tradition of social business person Florence Nightingale’s and the progress of Brazilian nursing from innovation to contemporaneity are the two essential subjects of the display.      


Florence nightingale's social entrepreneurship

The movements in various fields of data were made possible because of the boldness of individuals who had the choice to break ideal models and go past spread-out cutoff points and principles. These were visionary academics and practitioners whose reasoning and behavior reflected esteem on both an individual and collective level. Thus, this gathering of female business people incorporates Florence nightingale's, the cutting-edge nurture. Her venturesome profile tried to spread out principles and made pivotal contemplations for nursing care that are intriguing and complex.

Consequently, social entrepreneurship is a brand-new development paradigm that emphasizes human and social development that is sustainable. He is referring to the person who creates a social framework through self-association and is also equipped to raise social impact esteem. Characterized by dynamic strategies used to localize actions on a global scale. Nightingale is a good example of how, in this sense, social entrepreneurship encourages professional growth as well as social change and emancipation. The legacy of this personality can be found within this paradigmatic and socially changing framework. In many fields of study, the pioneer of modern nursing's legacy is well-known and respected. Nightingale inspired his successor to create a new expert standard, communicating with them, and convincing them that organizational and structural changes were necessary. Additionally, he regarded nursing care as having scientific and social significance. She was a successful businesswoman who stood out for her perseverance, creativity, and willingness to take risks. Figure 1 summarize the present research.


Figure 1. Overview of this investigation


Nightingale's entrepreneurial journey advanced on a social, political, and economic level from this perspective. If it added humanitarian value to the social sphere, it would open up new opportunities for nurses to participate, including ones that could be competitive and sustainable. Under this concentration, social business people stand apart for their capacity to deliver results even despite the outrageous difficulty. Social entrepreneurs use business management principles, innovation, and creativity to solve societal problems. They come up with original solutions and make changes, especially in those dark or promising realities. Like Florence Nightingale, a pioneer in medical-sanitary reform and a driving force behind improvements in global public health, dedicate automatically to a superior social mission.

Left a highly regarded social setting that would have put his loved ones at risk to care for the wounded and dead troopers in the Crimea due to his obligation to social makes. She was named one of the world's top 100 women for more than just setting up the medical system as well as economic life throughout the war. She was additionally expected into the worldwide spotlight for her proactive initiative and political power, which empowered her to be positioned among the main 100 ladies. This pioneering spirit is more than just practical actions; it's also a mentality that includes the drive and aptitude to see and open new doors for friendly intercession based on a mind-boggling, fundamental perspective on the real world.



Brazilian nursing's evolution: from modernity to contemporaneity

Different reasons exist for the contemporary and current Brazilian nursing calling to be happy for its accomplishments and adventure itself as the calling addressing what might be on the horizon. Is a matter of some importance, because of the way that a profession requires a complete cognizance of the real world — that is, an understanding of human necessities in general and corresponding to their social setting. In many contexts, the promotion and protection of users' health, as well as the identification of the population's healthcare needs, are being led by the Brazilian nursing profession. This is particularly valid for their proactive and critical thinking consideration in different settings.

 A power of multiple million experts, present in 5 570 regions, makes up the 27 units of the Organization. The promotion of public policy and health intervention that aspire to further solidify the tenets and strategy of the Single National Health System is making a nurse the profession of choice for the future. Although business acumen is still the primary focus, numerous initiatives related to nursing entrepreneurship can previously be seen in a general context. Expanding initiatives and supporting healthcare providers is critical, starting with the discussion of the subject and the creation of specific reference materials for the field, which generates disagreements and debates. All of the nurse's professional actions and work environments reflect the nurse's caregiving as a social enterprise practice. It can be observed in a variety of settings, the social structure of healthcare, and the interpersonal and technical political competitions that nurses engage in. In the beginning, nursing has a wide range of skills and is a well-known job field. Figure 2 depicts the overall number of fatalities reported in England on a weekly basis.


Figure 2. England's weekly death rate


However, it still needs to expand by investing in professional development, exploring new areas, and realizing that being an entrepreneur means exploring opportunities and promoting new professional practices. One's self-concept, synergy, leadership, and relationship/interaction system are fundamental components of this ability to envision, develop, and implement goals. In the beginning, nursing has a wide range of skills and is a well-known job field. However, it still needs to expand by investing in professional development, exploring new areas, and realizing that being an entrepreneur means exploring opportunities and promoting new professional practices. One's self-concept, synergy, leadership, and relationship/interaction system are fundamental components of this ability to envision, develop, and implement goals. For instance, a lot of nurses in Brazil see themselves as entrepreneurs because they are willing to take on responsibility and risk to create opportunities and because they have the skills, expertise, and leadership qualities needed to develop novel management and intervention procedures with the potential to improve public health.


Figure 3. Comparison of yearly death rates


The legacy that Florence Nightingale left behind makes it clear how important an employer's actions are in making proposals for societal value. She was a nurse, politician, and manager who set an example for social entrepreneurs by taking a bold and innovative approach to addressing health and social issues. The numerical figures of mortality rates are shown in table 1.


Table 1. Numerical values of death rates


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Contributions to the field of nursing

The primary involvement of this study is to shed light on how nursing has changed over Florence Nightingale's 200-year career. A different contribution is to draw consideration to this pioneer, whose entrepreneurial profile upended conventional models and established new ways of the creature and promoting the uniqueness and multidimensionality of sick people's care. In addition, this work promotes theoretically informed new social intervention strategies and fosters an entrepreneurial culture in the nursing profession intending to advance nursing science.

This viewpoint holds that to demonstrate the necessity of training nurses for social entrepreneurship, it is necessary to train professionals who are critical, adaptable, and proactive for the new and different—professionals who can recognize opportunities in the face of convention and enable, in this way, a new organization in both the local and global spheres.(16,17,18,19)



In terms of how it relates to the development of contemporary and modern nursing, Florence Nightingale's legacy transcends all fields of study. She is notable for her visionary outlook, social humanitarian value, and potential to alter current trends and realities, in addition to being a pioneer of contemporary nursing. One way to describe the social entrepreneurship movement is as a novel strategy that creates social value and causes political and economic shifts across many social groups. As a result, higher education institutions need to come up with interdisciplinary strategies that help students cultivate an entrepreneurial spirit by teaching them new attitudes and behaviors that will help them deal with challenges now and in the future. Reaffirming the social value of contemporary nursing, ignoring its definition, and reviving the philosophical standards of the field—especially about its apparent social mission—are all part of Florence Nightingale legacy. In conclusion, it is hoped that this pioneering figure's legacy, one year into the Nursing Now campaign, will serve as a source of inspiration and encouragement to nurses all over the world to keep leading the charge for improvements in public health.



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No financing.






Conceptualization: Renuka Jyothi R, Poonam Sharma, Bulbul Chaudhary.

Methodology: Renuka Jyothi R, Poonam Sharma, Bulbul Chaudhary.

Drafting - original draft: Renuka Jyothi R, Poonam Sharma, Bulbul Chaudhary.

Writing - proofreading and editing: Renuka Jyothi R, Poonam Sharma, Bulbul Chaudhary.