doi: 10.56294/saludcyt2024732

 

ORIGINAL

 

Depression, Anxiety and Stress due to the COVID-19 Pandemic in Residents attending a Community Health Facility in North Lima

 

Depresión, Ansiedad y Estrés por la Pandemia del COVID-19 en Residentes que asisten a un Establecimiento de Salud Comunitario en Lima Norte

 

Brian Meneses-Claudio1  *, Juan Saberbein-Muñoz2  *, Maria Salinas-Cruz3  *, Teresa Quesada-Aramburu2  *, Elias Mejia-Mejia4  *, Francis Díaz-Flores4  *, Enrique Lee Huamaní5  *, Melissa Yauri-Machaca6  *

 

1Universidad Científica del Sur, Facultad de Ciencias Empresariales. Lima, Perú.

2Universidad Nacional de Educación Enrique Guzmán y Valle, Facultad de Tecnología. Lima, Perú.

3Universidad Nacional de Educación Enrique Guzmán y Valle, Facultad de Pedagogía y Cultura Física. Lima, Perú.

4Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Escuela de Posgrado de Educación. Lima, Perú.

5Universidad de Ciencias y Humanidades, Image Processing Research Laboratory (INTI-Lab). Lima, Perú.

6Business on Making Technologies, Research and Technology Direction. Lima, Perú.

 

Cite as: Meneses-Claudio B, Saberbein-Muñoz J, Salinas-Cruz M, Quesada-Aramburu T, Mejia-Mejia E, Díaz-Flores F, Lee Huamaní E, Yauri-Machaca M. Depression, Anxiety and Stress due to the COVID-19 Pandemic in Residents attending a Community Health Facility in North Lima. Salud, Ciencia y Tecnología. 2024;4:732. https://doi.org/10.56294/saludcyt2024732

 

Submitted: 29-10-2023                   Revised: 13-12-2023                             Accepted: 10-02-2024                          Published: 11-02-2024

 

Editor: Dr. William Castillo-González

 

ABSTRACT

 

Introduction: mental disorders are one of the problems caused by the coronavirus pandemic in the general population, so the objective of the study is to determine depression, anxiety and stress due to the COVID-19 pandemic in residents who go to a community health facility in North Lima,

Methods: it is a quantitative, descriptive-cross-sectional study, with a total population of 140 people attending a community health facility, who answered a questionnaire on sociodemographic aspects and the scale of depression, anxiety and stress,

Results: in their results, we can observe that 51,4 % (n=72) of the participants have moderate depression, 45 % (n=63) moderate anxiety and 42,1 % (n=59) moderate stress,

Conclusions: in conclusion, actions aimed at the mental health of the general population due to the COVID-19 pandemic must be reinforced, improved or implemented in a comprehensive manner

 

Keywords: Depression; Anxiety; Stress; Mental Health; Primary Health Care.

 

RESUMEN

 

Introducción: los trastornos mentales son uno de los problemas causados por la pandemia de coronavirus en la población general, por lo que el objetivo del estudio es determinar la depresión, ansiedad y estrés por la pandemia de COVID-19 en pobladores que acuden a un establecimiento de salud comunal de Lima Norte,

Métodos: es un estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo-transversal, con una población total de 140 personas que acuden a un establecimiento de salud comunitario, quienes respondieron un cuestionario sobre aspectos sociodemográficos y la escala de depresión, ansiedad y estrés,

Resultados: en sus resultados, se puede observar que el 51,4 % (n=72) de los participantes presentan depresión moderada, el 45 % (n=63) ansiedad moderada y el 42,1 % (n=59) estrés moderado,

Conclusiones: En conclusión, las acciones dirigidas a la salud mental de la población general debido a la pandemia de COVID-19 deben ser reforzadas, mejoradas o implementadas de forma integral

 

Palabras clave: Depresión; Ansiedad; Estrés; Salud mental; Atención Primaria.

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

In the past, during pandemicsor epidemics, there were mental and social disorders that can disturb the activity of the population(1)fear of getting sick worsens the condition of the population, during pandemics, the community experiences stress and anxiety to some extent, and psychological disorders become common(2,3)

There is no doubt that the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) is one of the factors that  has generated mental disorders affecting mental health worldwide, since the experiences it has generated in each person have been psychologically harmful, both physically, socially and spiritually(4,5,6)

Although,mental health and its conditions have been a concern since before the pandemic;  but during it it has been worsening considerably, since in 2019 according to the National Institute of Health (INS) it has been  mentioned that mental health has been considered one of the health priorities that affects the population in general7  However, during the COVID-19 pandemic, due to  confinement and strict social restrictions, it has generated a negative impact on people's mental health, requiring the health system to respond to the fear and uncertainty present in the population(8)

The health emergency due to the COVID-19 pandemic caused all health efforts to be reoriented to the care of people with coronavirus, leaving aside in many cases mental health care(9,10) These two situations favor the appearance of more cases of people who have their emotional health affected (11,12)

According to the Ministry of Health (MINSA) in our country.(13)

That is why, a comprehensive analysis of greater relevance has been carried out for the selection of antecedents that identify the main theme of the study, in which they were found in information sources such as Scopus, Web of Science and Pubmed.

In a study conducted in India, with 147 participants, they stated in their results that 33,33 % of the participating inhabitants had high levels of depression, 37,4 % high levels of anxiety and 19,72 % high levels of stress. Concluding that the symptoms of these pictures are in too high a magnitude, since it considerably affects the person and his family (14)

In a study conducted in Iran, with 149 participants, they interpreted in their results that 36,6 % of the participating inhabitants had normal levels of stress, 57,9 % of anxiety and 47,9 % of depression. (20) Concluding that in the Iranian population there was a great impact on mental health given that, the educational level, having a family member at high risk of contracting any disease, catching COVID-19, made their mental health compromised (15)

In a study conducted in Vietnam, with 1385 participants, they observed in their results that 35,9 % of the inhabitants experienced pictures of psychological distress, 22,3 % depression, 14,1 % anxiety and 22,3 % stress. Concluding that worries, anguish and fear about COVID-19 generated a negative impact on people's mental health.(16)

Therefore, the research objective is to determine depression, anxiety and stress due to the COVID-19 pandemic in residents who attend a community health facility in North Lima.

Likewise, it will be determined if there is an existing relationship between the variables depression, anxiety and stress due to the COVID-19 pandemic in residents who attend a community health facility in North Lima.

 

METHODS

Research type and Design

In the study,according to its properties is quantitative, with respect to its methodology is descriptive-cross-sectional non-experimental.(17)

 

Population

The total population consists of 140 patients who go to the general practice practice.

 

Inclusion Criteria

·      People over 18 years old

·      Persons in the jurisdiction of the health facility

·      People who volunteer in the study

·      People who signed the inform consent CIE IPSF 002-2023. It was previously accepted by the institution.

 

Exclusion criteria

·  Persons under 18 years old.

·  persons who are not within the jurisdiction of the health facility.

·  People who have not signed the informed consent.

 

Technique and Instrument

The data collection technique was the survey, having a questionnaire of sociodemographic aspects and The Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale or Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21).

The DASS-21, is an instrument that presents three scales containing 14 elements, divided into subscales of 2 to 5 elements with similar content. The depression scale assesses dysphoria, hopelessness, devaluation of life, self-loathing, lack of interest or participation, anhedonia and inertia. The anxiety scale assesses autonomic arousal, skeletal muscle effects, situational anxiety, and subjective experience of anxious affect. The stress scale is sensitive to levels of chronic non-specific arousal. It evaluates difficulty relaxing, nervous excitement and discomfort, agitation or irritation, over reactivity and impatience. It consists of 4 answer alternatives, 0 "not at all", 1 "sometimes", 2 "a good part of the time" and 3 "most of the time" that serve to rate the degree to which each state has experienced during the past week (18)

The sample adequacy measure to obtain the validation of the instrument through the Kaiser-Mayer-Olkin test obtained a coefficient of 0,958 (KMO > 0,8) and the Bartlett sphericity test obtained significant results (Approx.  X 2 = 7,41 7,12 8; gl = 2 15; Sig.= 0,000).

Finally, Cronbach's alpha internal consistency coefficient was 0,975 (α > 0,8; N of elements = 21), so it is determined that the instrument has a high degree of reliability.

The area under the curve for each of the DASS-21 scales was greater than 0,9. For the Depression scale, a cut-off point of 6 (>5) (sensitivity of 88,46 % and specificity of 86,77 %) was selected. For the Anxiety scale, the cut-off point corresponded to 5 (>4) (sensitivity of 87,50 % and specificity of 83,38 %). On the Stress scale, a cut-off point of 6 (>5) (sensitivity of 81,48) and specificity of 71,36 % were selected. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress scales (DASS-21) demonstrated adequate usefulness as a screening instrument.

 

Place and Application of the Instrument

First, prior coordination was carried out managing the authorization in the health facility where the study was conducted in the month of December to February 2023 for follow-up, in addition to providing information about the research so that they have the necessary knowledge of what is going to be carried out.

 

RESULTS

 

Figure 1. Depression due to the COVID-19 pandemic in residents who go to a community health facility in North Lima

 

In figure 1, with respect to the results of the depression scale, we can observe that 10,7 % of the participants have normal levels of depression, 24,3 % mild depression, 51,4 % moderate depression, 12,1 % severe depression and 1,4 % extremely severe depression.

 

Figure 2.  Anxiety about the COVID-19 pandemic in residents who go to a community health facility in North Lima

 

In figure 2, with respect to the results of the anxiety scale, we can observe that 15 % of the participants have normal anxiety, 25,7 % mild anxiety, 45 % moderate anxiety, 12,1 % severe anxiety and 2,1 % extremely severe anxiety.

 

Figure 3.  Stress due to the COVID-19 pandemic in residents who go to a community health facility in North Lima

 

In figure 3, with respect to the results of the stress scale, we can see that 9,3 % of the participants have normal stress, 36,4 % mild stress, 42,1 % moderate stress, 11,4 % severe stress and 0,7 % extremely severe stress.

 

DISCUSSION

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, many of the measures to counteract its advance, have caused an impact on people's daily lives, and that this has generated mental health problems given the situation left by this disease.

As for the results of the depression scale, we observe that the participants  have  a moderate depression,  depression being a state of sad and  low mood, affects the body and thinking in response to situations that   put their health at risk, and that this can be aggravated if it lasts in the person,  Since being locked in the home, seeing how their relatives are infected, the death of any of them, and the restrictions to avoid the disease can cause  depressive disorders in the short and long term. (19)

As for anxiety, their results were moderate in the participants, this is because, being anxiety described as an adaptive response to avoid any risk to their health, but that, at the same time, when presented next, can cause a mental disorder that can compromise their health. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, many of the people have been anxious, since they could not carry out their activities in a normal way, and that, being locked in their homes, caused anxious symptoms to increase considerably, symptoms such as restlessness, fear, sleep problems, difficulty breathing and mouth drying, all this can manifest itself in the long term in people who, As a result of the pandemic, they have found themselves isolated from any activation they carried out before it.

As for stress, their results were moderate in the participants, this is because uncertainty, personal and family despair in the face of changes in life and daily activities due to COVID-19 has generated, stressful symptoms in people, symptoms such as headache, muscle tension, fatigue, malaise and sleep problems, affects the person since they cannot do what they could do before the pandemic.

Therefore, during the data collection process and the constant monitoring of the inhabitants given to their results, it is very important to bear in mind that the mental health problem that has been generated by depression, anxiety and stress during the COVID-19 pandemic increased to higher levels, although it is true, in our studies most of the participants did not show that they have severely compromised their mental health,  Given different personal methods that protect and balance their mental health, improving their psycho-emotional skills and being resilient, it has allowed them to cope with this disease process that lasted several years.

This research work will be beneficial for future studies, since the study focuses during the COVID-19 pandemic and how it affects the mental health of people with depression, anxiety and stress disorders since its importance has given us to know different strategies that maintain or protect the mental health of the person during the time the disease remained; That is why, in comparison to our history of study of the same subject in different countries, has given an exhaustive comparison that, given the situation of vulnerability whether social, economic or educational, remember that in our country the socioeconomic and educational issue is low, that is why, the approach in this population of our country,  It has given us the necessary information about how vulnerable the person is to serious situations that compromise their health and that of their family.

 

CONCLUSIONS

It is concluded that actions should be reinforced, improved or implemented in a comprehensive manner aimed at the mental health of the general population due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

It is concluded that the population should be educated about strategies to keep their mental health healthy and that this allows them to develop skills or abilities to be able to adapt to any risk situation that compromises their health.

The limitation in our study is that the villagers who are cared for in a community health center were mostly reserved, and because of this, the collection of information could not be carried out on certain days designated to be carried out; In addition, for the follow-up in home visits was a bit difficult, since the heads of families mostly agreed to be able to continue with the collection of data.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES

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FINANCING

The authors did not receive financing for the development of this research.

 

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

 

AUTHORSHIP CONTRIBUTION

Conceptualization: Brian Meneses-Claudio, Juan Saberbein-Muñoz, Maria Salinas-Cruz, Teresa Quesada-Aramburu, Elias Mejia-Mejia, Francis Díaz-Flores, Enrique Lee Huamaní, Melissa Yauri-Machaca.

Data curation: Brian Meneses-Claudio.

Formal analysis: Francis Díaz-Flores, Enrique Lee Huamaní, Melissa Yauri-Machaca.

Acquisition of funds: No funds.

Research: Juan Saberbein-Muñoz, Maria Salinas-Cruz, Teresa Quesada-Aramburu.

Methodology: Juan Saberbein-Muñoz, Maria Salinas-Cruz, Teresa Quesada-Aramburu. Project management: Brian Meneses-Claudio.

Project management: Enrique Lee Huamaní, Melissa Yauri-Machaca.

Resources: Elias Mejia-Mejia, Francis Díaz-Flores.

Software: Brian Meneses-Claudio.

Supervision: Juan Saberbein-Muñoz, Maria Salinas-Cruz, Teresa Quesada-Aramburu, Elias Mejia-Mejia.

Validation: Juan Saberbein-Muñoz, Maria Salinas-Cruz, Teresa Quesada-Aramburu, Elias Mejia-Mejia.

Display: Brian Meneses-Claudio.

Drafting - original draft: Brian Meneses-Claudio.

Writing - proofreading and editing: Brian Meneses-Claudio.