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Exploring Acute Diarrhea in Infants: A Comprehensive Review of Infectious Agents and Laboratory Diagnostic Techniques

By
Edwin Alexander Rodríguez Naranjo ,
Edwin Alexander Rodríguez Naranjo

Universidad Técnica de Ambato, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Carrera de Laboratorio Clínico. Ambato, Ecuador

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Carlos Fernando Yauli Flores ,
Carlos Fernando Yauli Flores

Universidad Técnica de Ambato, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Carrera de Laboratorio Clínico. Ambato, Ecuador

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Abstract

Introduction: acute diarrhea is one of the main causes of mortality in children under 5 years of age around the world. They disproportionately affect underdeveloped countries, where access to health services, drinking water and sanitation is limited. Objective: this review identifies the most relevant and recent studies associated with the topic, recognizes the most common infectious agents and determines the laboratory techniques used for their diagnosis. Methods: the literature was reviewed from sources such as Elsevier, PubMed, Scopus, SciELO and Google Scholar during the period March-May 2024, published in the last 5 years and several studies prior to 2019 that contributed relevant information to the topic. Results: previous studies reveal that acute childhood diarrhea is mainly characterized by its fecal-oral transmission, caused by Rotavirus and Adenovirus, and sometimes by Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica, among others. Acute diarrhea is characterized by the presence of three or more soft or liquid stools per day, and is classified according to its duration. Fecal increase, dehydration and electrolyte abnormalities are associated complications and constitute clinically useful elements for its diagnosis. For viruses, rapid tests and PCR are used, for bacteria, cultures and antibiograms, and for parasites, coproparasites, ELISA and PCR. Conclusion: These disorders represent a significant health challenge, with a considerable impact on morbidity and mortality, originating from viruses, bacteria and parasites. The diagnosis is made through physical, coprological examinations, immunochromatographic and molecular tests.

How to Cite

1.
Rodríguez Naranjo EA, Yauli Flores CF. Exploring Acute Diarrhea in Infants: A Comprehensive Review of Infectious Agents and Laboratory Diagnostic Techniques. Salud, Ciencia y Tecnología [Internet]. 2024 Jun. 30 [cited 2024 Jul. 15];4:1100. Available from: https://revista.saludcyt.ar/ojs/index.php/sct/article/view/1100

The article is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Unless otherwise stated, associated published material is distributed under the same licence.

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