Introduction: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is characterized by attacking TCD4 cells and macrophages; with the progression of the pathology, secondary infections can develop.
Objetive: to describe the theoretical foundations of the HIV epidemiological surveillance system in Ecuador.
Methods: research based on bibliographic review in different databases, Epidemiological Gazettes, SIVE-ALERTA Manuals and websites of Scientific Knowledge Organizations, the PICOT question was also implemented and 25 articles based on the PRISMA method were used.
Results: The surveillance procedure is based on universal surveillance with different diagnostic methods, notified through EPI INFO-SIGEPI databases registered with the Ministry of Public Health. The total number of infections in Ecuador in 2022 is 48,924, with a higher incidence in the province of Napo with 0.67 and new cases in the province of Guayas with 32.5%.
Conclusion: Information from different databases on the incidence, prevalence, morbidity, mortality and opportunistic infections of the HIV virus was synthesized.
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