Introduction: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious intestinal disease characterized by intestinal inflammation and necrosis. This disease is one of the most common diseases of the digestive system in newborns and mainly affects premature babies who survive the early neonatal period. NEC was first described in the 1940s and 1950s; Since then, many physicians and scientists have devoted extensive research efforts to understanding the pathogenesis of NEC, developing treatments and interventions to prevent the disease, and improving treatment strategies.
Clinical case: Premature male patient, 10 days old, born by emergency cesarean section at 28 weeks of gestation, newborn weight and height not in accordance with his gestational age, antibiotic therapy is rotated during hospitalization in a neonatology specialty, he reports respiratory difficulty, neonatal anemia, blood transfusion is decided plus CPAP via nasal cannula, an abdominal X-ray was performed which reported intestinal perforation.
Evolution: premature infant of 28 weeks of gestation, with respiratory distress and weight not in accordance with his age, is admitted to neonatology where laboratory tests are performed that indicate anemia plus low oxygen levels, complemented with transfusion plus CPAP, patient responds favorably. Abdominal X-ray was performed showing intestinal perforation; he was referred to pediatric surgery which showed necrotizing enterocolitis.
Conclusions: NEC is a rare entity in premature patients, the importance of the clinical picture for the imaging examination complements the effective diagnosis to reduce its possible complications and avoid mortality.
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