Introduction: Cystatin C, a protein with stable plasma concentration and exclusive renal elimination, has been highlighted as a promising early marker of cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients due to its relationship with renal function and inflammation.
Objective: To identify in the existing literature the association between Cystatin C and cardiovascular risk in patients with diabetes, evaluating its potential as a marker by means of a systematic review.
Methods: We performed exhaustive searches of scientific databases and selected ten studies that met the inclusion criteria. These studies focused on the evaluation of Cystatin C expression profiles and their effectiveness as a marker in the diagnosis and prognosis of cardiovascular disease. The PRISMA method was used.
Results: The studies reveal that cystatin C is closely associated with type 2 diabetes, predicts cardiovascular disease, and provides an accurate assessment of renal function in diabetic patients, highlighting its usefulness as an early marker of complications. Furthermore, elevated cystatin C levels correlate with increased mortality and cardiovascular risk, surpassing in accuracy other traditional markers, positioning it as a key indicator in the comprehensive assessment of risk and prognosis in diabetic patients.
Conclusions: Cystatin C shows promising links with diabetes and cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients, suggesting its usefulness as an early marker. Although it offers the potential for detecting renal and cardiac complications, further research is required before its widespread clinical implementation.
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