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Effects of malnutrition on child neurodevelopment and mental health

By
Carolina Arráiz de Fernández ,
Carolina Arráiz de Fernández

Docente de la Carrera de Enfermería. Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud. Universidad Técnica de Ambato, Ambato-Ecuador

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Gerardo Fernández Soto ,
Gerardo Fernández Soto

Coordinador del Proyecto de Investigación: “Caracterización del inmunometabolismo como parámetro predictivo de las complicaciones de la malnutrición infantil” DIDE. Universidad Técnica de Ambato, Ambato-Ecuador

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Luis Rojas Conde ,
Luis Rojas Conde

Docente de la Carrera de Enfermería. Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud. Universidad Técnica de Ambato, Ambato-Ecuador

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Fabiola Chasillacta Amores ,
Fabiola Chasillacta Amores

Docente de la Carrera de Enfermería. Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud. Universidad Técnica de Ambato, Ambato-Ecuador

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Gerardo Fernández Arráiz ,
Gerardo Fernández Arráiz

Médico Rural del Centro de Salud Cunchibamba. Ministerio de Salud Pública, Ambato-Ecuador.

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Maritza Cabrera ,
Maritza Cabrera

Centro de Investigaciones de Estudios Avanzados del Maule, Universidad Católica del Maule, Talca, Chile. Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Católica del Maule, Talca, Chile

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Abstract

Introduction: Childhood malnutrition, a serious public health problem in children and adolescents, with changes in body composition, homeostasis of the body, neurodevelopment and alterations in mental health. Objective: Describe the effects of malnutrition on neurodevelopment and children's mental health. Methods: Narrative review study, with a documentary, non-systematic and descriptive design in scientific databases: Pubmed, Scopus, SciELO, Redalyc and Google Scholar, using Health Sciences descriptors, whose selection criteria were complete articles published between 2018 -2023, in English and Spanish. Results: Families with better socioeconomic status have children with a higher risk of suffering from malnutrition due to overweight and obesity, while malnutrition is more common in children from low-income families in poorer countries; However, changes in the epidemiology of diseases due to malnutrition with emotional alterations were prevalent in developed countries, considered a global problem. People diagnosed with psychiatric illnesses, reported with childhood trauma, such as abuse and/or maltreatment, may be at greater risk of suffering from malnutrition due to eating disorders. Conclusions: Nutrition is the greatest environmental influence on childhood neurodevelopment, due to the impact on mental health that begins with maternal prenatal malnutrition, alters neurodevelopment and increases the postnatal risk of decreased cognitive function, behavioral disorders and greater susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders. Similarly, obesity during pregnancy predisposes the fetus to a phenotype with neurodevelopmental impairments, producing postnatal alterations in executive functions, decreased impulse control, and compulsive eating behaviors.

How to Cite

1.
Arráiz de Fernández C, Fernández Soto G, Rojas Conde L, Chasillacta Amores F, Fernández Arráiz G, Cabrera M. Effects of malnutrition on child neurodevelopment and mental health. Salud, Ciencia y Tecnología [Internet]. 2024 Feb. 27 [cited 2024 Apr. 23];4:742. Available from: https://revista.saludcyt.ar/ojs/index.php/sct/article/view/742

The article is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Unless otherwise stated, associated published material is distributed under the same licence.

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