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Vol. 3 (2023)

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Comité Editorial Salud, Ciencia y Tecnología Comité Editorial Gloria Rebeca Medina Naranjo, Shirley Katherine Barrera Loayza, Tania Gabriela Simbaña Toledo Gloria Rebeca Medina Naranjo, Shirley Katherine Barrera Loayza, Christopher Alexander Analuisa Apupalo Jeanneth Elizabeth Jami Carrera, Joshua Ismael Paredes Cisneros, Natalia del Carmen Andrade Cordero, Nayely Belén Quintana Amores Leonel Gerardo Ruano Yarpaz, Erika Marcela León Revelo Enith del Carmen Armijos Robles, Diana Maribel Armijos Robles, María Estefani Juca Pañega, Alcivar Alejandro Vega Sánchez Raúl González Salas, Mildre Mercedes Vidal del Río, Marco Paul Medina Valencia, Matías Gabriel Jaramillo López Rocío Huamán Vargas, Fabriciana Quijano Remigio, Mónica Elisa Meneses-La-Riva, Wilter C. Morales-García, María Teresa Cabanillas-Chavez Luis Fernando Pérez Solis, Elizabeth Paulina Reinoso Toledo Enoc Tito López Mamani, Janet Mercedes Arévalo-Ipanaqué, Monica Elisa Meneses-La-Riva, Wilter C. Morales-García, María Teresa Cabanillas-Chavez, Mardel Morales-García Alfredo Carlos Rodríguez-Portelles, Arianna Maité Céspedes Rómulo, Reynaldo Carvajal Choque, Daniela Stephanie Montenegro Salas, Isaura Jaimes, Fátima Paola Altamirano Jara, Verónica Alexandra Flores Santander, Onelis Góngora Gómez Luis Fernando Pérez Solís, Elizabeth Paulina Reinoso Toledo, Katherine Cristina Miranda Coello, Norma Ximena Peñaloza Pérez Joselin Sandoval-Cárcamo, Nicole Arias-Roa, Beatriz Magaly Arancibia-Gutiérrez Luis Darío Pérez Villalba, María de los Ángeles Aliaga Toapanta, Lady Dina Tuitsa Picham, Miguel Ángel Lomas Toscano Iris Anahí Trávez Sandoval, María Carolina Saltos Barre, Gerardo Ramos Serpa, Gloria Rebeca Medina Naranjo Adisnay Rodríguez Plasencia, Gabriela Esthefanía Ortiz Vásquez, Riber Fabián Donoso Noroña, Nairovys Gómez Martínez Roberto Javier Aguilar Berrezueta, Blanca Cristina Estrella López, Guido Nino Guida Acevedo, Valeria Lisseth López Pérez Noemí Estefanía Morales Morales, Norma Ximena Peñaloza Pérez, Katherine Cristina Miranda Coello Diana Cristina Navarro Rodríguez, Milton Carlos Guevara Valtier, Ana María Salinas Martínez, María de los Ángeles Paz Morales, Velia Margarita Cárdenas Villarreal, Silvia Guadalupe Soltero Rivera Noemí Estefanía Morales Morales, Nicole Andrea Arcos Núñez Nairovys Gómez Martínez, Riber Fabián Donoso Noroña, Adisnay Rodríguez Plasencia, Freddy Wladimir Sisa Alban Silvina Soledad Hernández, Patricia Graciela Méndez, Liliana Rosa Sosa, Marcela Anahí Flores, Mónica Andrea Rodríguez, Carlos Jesús Canova Barrios Felipe Calderón Canales, Nayarett Agüero Guerra, Francisca Álamos Silva, Claudia Andrade Millalonco, Paulina Jubal Morales, Catalina Waymann Landini Merary Flores-García, Héctor Cruz-Santiago, Juan Antonio García-Baltazar, Moisés Alberto Torres-Olivera, Alma Delia Ramírez-Figueroa, Narciso Ysac Ávila-Serrano, Idana Beroska Rincon Soto Pablo Andrés Catota Tiban, Yeisy Cristina Guarate Coronado Gabriela Estefanía Peralta Lata, María José Pesántez Puente, Julio Cesar Ojeda Sánchez, Viviana Katherine Rimbaldo Loaiza Estela Morales-Peralta, Amanda Alonso-Valle, Gretell Huertas-Pérez, Flabia Marrero-Domínguez, Beatriz Suárez-Besil, Beatriz Marcheco-Teruel Katherine Pamela Tandalla Yanez, Nadihezka Amanda Cusme Torres Kerly Yuliana Apolo Loayza Lissette Dayana Salazar Llerena, Verónica del Pilar Cantuñi Carpio Francisco Javier Vidal Barrantes Francis Paul Zambrano Barriga, Nadihezka Amanda Cusme Torres Reina María Macero Méndez, José Antonio Cabrera Vicuña Diego Bonilla-Jurado, Cesar Guevara, Ivanna Karina Sánchez Montero, Sarah Jacqueline Iza Pazmiño, Manuel Enrique Chenet Zuta Matilde Bolaño García, Nixon Duarte Acosta, Keguin González Castro Martha Estefanía Salguero Pérez, Miriam Ivonne Fernandez Nieto Yudayly Stable-Rodríguez, Manuel Osvaldo Machado Rivero, Lee Yang Díaz-Chieng Erika Michelle Guangasi Pinto, Miriam Ivonne Fernández Nieto Jonathan Martínez-Libano, Javier Torres-Vallejos, Nicol González Campusano, Javiera Pereira Castillo, Hugo Simkin, Juan Carlos Oyanedel, María-Mercedes Yeomans Robinson Adrián Rumiguano Jiménez, Stalin Javier Caiza Lema, Katherine Pamela Valencia Pasquel, Geovanna Maribel Herrera Herrera, Victoria Estefania Espin Pastor, María Gabriela Romero Rodríguez Daniela Milagros Anticona Valderrama, Jose Jeremias Caballero Cantu, Edith Delia Chavez Ramirez, Ana Beatriz Rivas Moreano, Lucila Rojas Delgado Maria Jose Tintel, Jorge Rivas, Romina Marini Daniel Andrade-Girón, Edgardo Carreño-Cisneros, Cecilia Mejía-Dominguez, William Marín-Rodriguez, Henry Villarreal-Torres Rodrigo-Alejandro Ardiles-Irarrázabal, Pablo Pérez-Díaz, Miguel Valencia-Contrera, Rosella Santoro Ageno Idana Beroska Rincon Soto, William Joel Marín-Rodriguez, Luis Alberto Baldeos-Ardían, Flor de María Líoo-Jordán, Dalila Irene Villanueva-Cadenas, Betty Janeth Soledispa-Cañarte, Pilar Asunción Soledispa-Cañarte Jhossmar Cristians Auza-Santivañez, Jorge Soneira Perez, Yanin Diaz Lara, David Orlando León, Nayra Condori-Villca, Juan Pablo Alvarez Loaces Arturo Flores, Lisselotte Saelzer, Denisse Cartagena-Ramos Christian Alexander Chicaiza Bautista, Verónica del Pilar Cantuñi Carpio Patricia del Rocio Chávarry-Ysla, Patricia Noemi Piscoya Angeles, Carlos Germán Castagnola-Sánchez, Yohana Milagros Oliva-Yarlaqué, Nil Montalvo Chacón, Pablo Andrés Dubo Araya, Maggie Campillay Campillay Patricia Villacreces Espinoza, Lourdes Lozada Lara Nicolás Ramírez Aguilera, Roberto García Jara, Felipe Machuca-Contreras Joselyn Estefania Masapanta Andrade, Martha Lorena Alvear Arévalo Carolina Henao, Jenny Paola Lis-Gutiérrez, Melissa Lis-Gutiérrez Thalía Alejandra Álvarez Peralta, Jeanneth Tapia Cardenas, Zoila Katherine Salazar Torres Axel Gandhi Urgiles Ruiz, Wilson Adrian Huailas Suquilanda, Hermel Medardo Espinoza Espinoza, Zoila Katherine Salazar Torres Brenda Miroslava Carrión Ramírez, Héctor Manuel Córdova Medina, Maria Viviana Murillo Párraga, Guillermo Segundo Del Campo Saltos Guillermo Del Campo Saltos, Wellington Villlota Oyarvide, Edison Andrade Sánchez, Yilena Montero Reyes Edgar Bravo Paladines, Yadira Vanessa Chaluisa Ante Rudy Espinoza-Gallardo, Flor de Maria Lioo-Jordan, Luis Alberto Baldeos-Ardian, Santiago Ernesto Ramos y Yovera, José Ausejo-Sánchez, Robert William Ocrospoma-Dueñas Rosario Caldas Jayo, Abrahán Cesar Neri Ayala, Algemiro Julio Muñoz Vilela, Edgar Tito Susanibar Ramirez, Sergio la Cruz Orbe Elizabeth Lucia Obregón Espinoza, Abrahán Cesar Neri Ayala, Santiago Ernesto Ramos y Yovera, Félix Gil Caro Soto, Algemiro Julio Muñoz Vilela Carmen Alicia Llerena, Erika Vanessa Aucanshala Shigla Héctor Agustín Rivadeneira Jurado, Alison Mariane Quispe Cedeño, María Celeste Paliz Gallegos, Elias Agustín Rivadeneira Jurado, Leslye Carolina Polo Mosquera, Eva Paola Guerra Godoy, Luz María Delgado Medina, Jaime Uxon Plasencia Castillo, María Auxiliadora Calero Zea Karla Rafaela Vásquez de La Bandera Zambrano, Carolina Arráiz de Fernández Francisco Novoa-Rojas, Andrea Báez-Alarcón Jessica Alexandra Castro Sánchez, William Andrés Jiménez Hurtado Jorge Anibal Chaluisa Ante, Blanca Patricia Diaz Vacacela Jeannette M. Acosta Nuñez, Gessi Maribel Sandoval Balarezo, Mónica Guadalupe Paredes Garcés, Fanny Alexandra Supe Supe Ingrid Ashqui Lascano, Evelin Velasco Acurio, José Herrera López, Diana Martínez Garcia, Eulalia Analuisa Jiménez, Verónica Cobo Sevilla Rita Guadalupe Shulca Tipantuña, Carola del Rocío Cortez Flores Algemiro Julio Muñoz-Vilela, Flor de María Lioo-Jordan, Luis Alberto Baldeos-Ardian, Santiago Ernesto Ramos Y Yovera, Abrahán Cesar Neri-Ayala, Naylamp Paola Ramos-Oyola Paulina Tigasi, Carolina Arráiz de Fernández Ernesto Díaz-Ronceros, Ángel David Hernández-Amasifuen, William Joel Marín-Rodriguez, Daniel Andrade Girón, José Luis Ausejo-Sánchez, Algemiro Julio Muñoz-Vilela, Abrahán Cesar Neri-Ayala Julio Ismael Hidalgo Ruiz, Wilson Adrian Huailas Suquilanda, Zoila Katherine Salazar Torres Rolando Eslava Zapata, Jesús Alfonso Omaña Guerrero, Francisco Javier Sierra Narváez, Johanna Milena Mogrovejo Andrade Bhavna Kaushik Pancholi, Pramodkumar Sevantilal Modi, Nehal Gitesh Chitaliya Ermelinda Salinas, Silvia Pérez, Silvio Saravia, Valeria Cros Báez, Viviana Galarza, Victoria Sánchez Antelo Christian Alexander Lema Guaraca, Luis Xavier Illares Guncay, Andrés Sebastián Rodríguez Balarezo Andrea Villamayor Amarilla, Makarena Velazquez, Raianny Guimarães Brito, Mirella Régia Ferreira Feijão, Hamanda Victória Estevão Ferreira Bhavna Kaushik Pancholi, Pramodkumar Sevantilal Modi, Nehal Gitesh Chitaliya Daniel Santos Silva-Nieves, Arthur Giuseppe Serrato-Cherres, Judith Marita Soplin Rojas, Arturo César Pomacaja Flores, Pamela Jennifer Sullca-Tapia Mercedes Olga Jara-Avellaneda, Yolanda Josefina Huayta-Franco, Esther Rosa Saenz Arenas, Jaime Manuel Cohaila Flores Jasline M, Geetika Madan Patel, Kavina Ganapathy Libin Joseph, Devanshu Patel J, Sandeep Kumar C Harita Nair M, Apurvakumar Pandya, Suphiya Parveen Uzma Noor Shah, Shivangi Gupta, Betty Koshy Upendra Sharma Udayashankar Sulibele, Jitendra Singh, Ravindra Roma Patel, Asha Kademane, Surendra Dadheech Harshal Shah, Bhuvana Jayabalan, Amali Mery Asha Kademane, Peekesh Kumar, Bulbul Chaudhary Luis Felipe Chileno Camacho, Diana Nancy Martínez García, Evelyn Fernanda Velasco Acuario, Cristofher Israel Tacle Humanante Renuka Jyothi R, Poonam Sharma, Bulbul Chaudhary Upendra Sharma Udayashankar Sulibele, Satish Prajapati, Meena Desai Malathi Hanumanthayya, Basavaraj Mudhol, Varsha Agarwal Bhargavi Deshpande, Malathi Hanumanthayya, Ram Niwas Basavaraj Mudhol, Siddharth Shahani, Suphiya Parveen Ram Kumar Garg, Hina Thakkar, Kavina Ganapathy Basavaraj Mudhol, Meena Krishna, Asha Kademane Lisbeth Maritza Shingón De La Cruz, Carolina Arráiz de Fernández Santiago Javier Azogue Tipan, William Jiménez Hurtado Julissa Bautista Cueva, Evelin Velasco Acurio, José Herrera López, Eulalia Analuisa Jimenez, Diana Martínez Garcia, Verónica Cobo Sevilla Mishell Stefanny Lema Grefa, Marianela Mejías Jefferson Alexander Ante Toaquiza, Marianela Mejías Yesenia Gabriela Toapanta Llumiquinga, Tatiana Elizabeth Rivera Aguilar Brayan Saúl Rosero Villalva, Marianela Mejías Punam Murmu, Ranjita Ghadei, Divya Evelyne Kuardar, Madhushree Naik Jessica Núñez Barriga, Carolina Arráiz de Fernández Claudia Yanina Castillo Guillermo Segundo Miñan Olivos, Jenny Caroly Flores Capcha, Andrea Rosario Piñas Illanes, Yesica Sonia Suria Huincho, Wendy Karina Toledo Figueroa, Jhon Anderson Garcia Zarzosa, Gian Carlos Mejia Huerta María Belén Padilla-Guerrero, Mónica Guadalupe Paredes-Garcés Alfredo Carlos Rodríguez-Portelles, Arianna Maité Céspedes Rómulo, David Pascual Rojas Flores, Reynaldo Carvajal Choque, Francia Pérez Arellano, Evelin Resplandor Millan, Romer Guachichulca, Isaura Jaimes, Marielena Vivas Fernández Diana Alejandra Carrera Jerez, Luis Geovanny Rojas Conde Dayana Lizbeth Tipán Pérez, Luis Geovanny Rojas Conde Jesús Alberto Soto Manrique, Eduardo Martín Garay Ugaz, Yolanda Josefina Huayta-Franco Lucia Asencios-Trujillo, Lida Asencios-Trujillo, Carlos La Rosa-Longobardi, Djamila Gallegos-Espinoza, Livia Piñas-Rivera, Rosa Perez-Siguas Francisco Poveda Paredes, Evelin Toapanta Toapanta, Victoria Cevallos Bonilla, Daniela Rosero Freire Nathali Cahuana Mallqui, Carlos Augusto Luy-Montejo, Yrene Cecilia Uribe-Hernández, Teresa de Jesús Campana Añasco, Daniel Angel Ramos Fuentes Nelly Alejandrina Pérez de la Cruz, Juana Yris Díaz-Mujica, Elizabeth Dany Araujo-Robles, Yanina Gallardo-Lolandes, Hilda Rocio Mendoza-Jimenez María Teresa Solomon Cardona, Julián Leonardo Gallo Rodríguez, Yordanka Ricardo de la Fé, Hector Julio Piñera-Castro, Juan Tejeiro Amador, Raúl José Macías González Elisa Roxana Dionisio Escalante, Jessica Paola Palacios Garay, Jenny Marianella Zavaleta Oliver, Carlos Oswaldo Venturo Orbegoso, Edgar Florian Damian Nuñez Doris Fuster-Guillén, Jesús Neyra-Léon, Jesús Neyra-Díaz, Yolvi Ocaña-Fernández Freddy Alexander Aldaz Vallejo, Victor Sebastian Encalada Vasconez, Johanna Mosquera Moscoso, Jennifer Carolina Martìnez, Pablo Javier Castillo Herrera Jennifer Rhamsay Toaquiza Passo, Fabiola Beatriz Chasillacta Amores Gabriela Pucheta-Xolo, Víctor Manuel Tegoma-Ruiz, José Roberto Sánchez-Hernández, Alma Delia Santiago-Mijangos, Yun Sem Chiu-Cruz Rosa Perez-Siguas, Hernan Matta-Solis, Eduardo Matta-Solis, Luis Perez-Siguas, Victoria Tacas-Yarcuri, Hernan Matta-Perez, Alejandro Cruzata-Martinez Ana Calle Carrasco, Yalie Avalos Mena, Marta Campillay Galleguillos, Belén Toledo Tapia, Gloria Peña Oliva Djamila Gallegos-Espinoza, Carlos La Rosa-Longobardi, Lucia Asencios-Trujillo, Livia Piñas-Rivera, Lida Asencios-Trujillo, Hernan Matta-Solis Jesús Antonio Zamorano-Espero, José Manuel Herrera-Paredes Kerlin Damiana Villamarin Díaz, Verónica del Pilar Cantuñi Carpio Gladys Mago Daniela Alejandra Romero Mejía, Valeria Isabel Espín López Terhi Kangas, Ricardo Ayala Claudia Valderrama-Ulloa, Viviana Bucarey, Juan Pablo Marchetti M Parameswari, VH Hema, Avudaiappan Seethalakshmi, Sathiya Priya Viswanathan Yaquelin Arzola-Castillo Carlos Alberto Gómez-Cano, Juan Carlos Miranda-Passo, René Ramírez Fernández Manuel Silva Infantes, Juan Manuel Sánchez Soto, Milagros Amparo Astete Montalvo, José Leonor Ruiz Nizama, Leonardo Velarde Dávila, Roberto Carlos Dávila-Morán, Dimna Zoila Alfaro Quezada, Alexander Frank Pasquel Cajas Sirajudeen Ameerjohn, Palaniappan Senthilnathan, Venkatachalam Ilayaraja, Ginnela Gopichand A Arockia Selvi, VH Hema Livia Piñas-Rivera, Carlos La Rosa-Longobardi, Lida Asencios-Trujillo, Djamila Gallegos-Espinoza, Lucia Asencios-Trujillo, Rosa Perez-Siguas Sabrina Bulacio Carlos La Rosa-Longobardi, Lucia Asencios-Trujillo, Lida Asencios-Trujillo, Djamila Gallegos-Espinoza, Livia Piñas-Rivera, Hernan Matta- Solis Brian Meneses-Claudio, Juan Saberbein-Muñoz, Maria Salinas-Cruz, Teresa Quesada-Aramburu, Elias Mejia-Mejia, Francis Díaz-Flores, Enrique Lee Huamaní, Melissa Yauri-Machaca Rosa Gerez Camilo Andrés Silva-Sánchez, Víctor Pedrero Castillo Carlos Oscar Lepez, Irene Amelia Simeoni Victoria Sánchez Antelo, Melisa Paolino, Silvina Arrossi Brian Meneses-Claudio, Ann Chaname-Marin, Juan Saberbein-Muñoz, Maria Salinas-Cruz, Teresa Quesada-Aramburu María Leticia Marín Mundo, Telmo Raul Aveiro-Róbalo Yrene Uribe-Hernandez, Brian Meneses-Claudio, Juan Saberbein-Muñoz, Maria Salinas-Cruz, Teresa Quesada-Aramburu Roberto Carlos Dávila-Morán, Rafael Alan Castillo-Sáenz, Alfonso Renato Vargas-Murillo, Leonardo Velarde Dávila, José Leonor Ruiz Nizama, Dimna Zoila Alfaro Quezada, Carla Giuliana Guanilo Pareja, Juan Manuel Sánchez Soto, Renzo Fidel Pasquel Cajas, Veronica Tomasa Cajas Bravo Liliana Broggi, Juan Kemmerer, Cristina Bandriwskyj, Alejandro Fernández, Cecilia Gangoni, Víctor Hugo Laura Edwin Gustavo Estrada-Araoz, Maribel Mamani-Roque Gloria Peña Oliva, Ana Calle Carrasco, Fabián Araya-Galleguillos Lidia Ysabel Pareja Pera, Roberto Carlos Dávila-Morán, Juan Manuel Sánchez Soto, Dimna Zoila Alfaro Quezada, José Leonor Ruiz Nizama, Rafael Alan Castillo-Sáenz, Leonardo Velarde Dávila, Elvira García-Huamantumba, Apolinar Saldaña Ponte, Alexander Frank Pasquel Cajas Maribel Mamani-Roque, Edwin Gustavo Estrada-Araoz, Milton Raul Mamani-Roque, Roberto Anacleto Aguilar-Velasquez, Franklin Jara-Rodríguez, César Elías Roque-Guizada Hernan Matta-Solis, Eva Ventura-Hernandez, Anika Remuzgo-Artezano, Hernan Matta-Perez, Alejandro Cruzata-Martinez, Rosa Perez-Siguas, Brian Meneses-Claudio, Olga Valderrama-Rios Cristian Irvin Ham Armenta, Darcy Danitza Marí Zapata, Luis Leobardo Fortis Olmedo, Diana Stephanie Calva Ruiz, Tania Sánchez Romero, Oralia Lara Padilla, Verónica Ruiz Vasconcelos Miguel Arias-Espinoza, Alexis Delgado-Gajardo, Nayadette Espinoza-Bahamondes, Miguel Ángel López-Espinoza Gina Morales-Acosta, Stefano Bertullo-González, Ana Milena Mujica-Stach, Yesica Olarte-Moreno, Adriana Anabalón-Quezada Tran Thi Nhan, Youichirou Matuo, Yoshinobu Izumi, Maradi Abdillah, Lukas Wisnu Wicaksono, Vuong Thu Bac Álvaro Sebastián Ron Mora, Alicia Monserrath Zabala Haro Lida Asencios-Trujillo, Lucia Asencios-Trujillo, Carlos La Rosa-Longobardi, Djamila Gallegos-Espinoza, Livia Piñas-Rivera, Hernan Matta-Solis Glenda Sarmiento Tomalá, Stuart Nelson Montoya Vizuete, Pilar Soledispa Cañarte, Zoraida Burbano Gomez, María C Villacres, Sandra Elizabeth Vizuete Proaño Mery Laura Ballesteros Cárdenas, Carolina Isabel Inostroza Rovegno, Fabiola Sáez-Delgado, Luís Emilio Izquierdo Araujo Andrea Pamela Vaca Moreano, Rocío Elizabeth Quinteros Portilla, Mónica Guadalupe Paredes Garcés, Jeannette Mercedes Acosta Nuñez Rone Santos Lucas, Marcelo Adrian Estrin Jose Jeremias Caballero-Cantu, Edith Delia Chavez-Ramirez, Mercedes Evangelina Lopez-Almeida, Edgar Salvador Inciso-Mendo, Juan Méndez Vergaray José Andrés Martínez Gutiérrez, Ruth Alba Hernández Espinosa, Lenin Alexander Quel Mejía, Andrea Blanco Silva, Fanny Rodríguez Núñez, Marcos Manuel Vásquez Mendoza, Erick Josue Fabre Morales, Gabriela Esmeralda Jarrín Vallejo Claudio San Martín-Barra, Carlos Rojas-Zepeda, Fabiola Sáez-Delgado Karen Michelle Jaramillo Sancho, Gabriela Paola Valenzuela Sánchez Nicol Tatiana Navas Morales, Gabriela Paola Valenzuela Sánchez Gisella Narcisa Regalado García, Klever Gregorio Regalado García, Jorge Andrés Arevalo Rojas, Dayamy Escalona León María del Cisne Gaguancela-Sabando, Cindy Grace Dávalos-Barzola Erick Josue Fabre Morales, César Augusto Guzmán Canaba, Lissette Brigitte Llerena Chicaiza, Dipaola Pamela Pino Vaca, Lenin Stalin Muñoz Villacres, Carlos Alexander Romero Córdova, Hailyn Isabella Villarreal Díaz, Andrea Mishell Rodríguez Coloma, Álvaro Andrés Lucero Carrera Joselyn Mireya Iza Arias, Miriam Ivonne Fernandez Nieto Verónica Karina Arias Salvador, Maricelys Jimenez Barrera, Jorge Leodan Cabrera Olvera, María Teresa Cabanillas Chavez, Monica Elisa Meneses-La Riva Leyzer Salinas, Franklin Guanuchi Nieves Liseth Cañaveral Estrella, Grace Pamela López Pérez María de los Ángeles Peña-Figueredo, Aníbal Espinosa Aguilar, Yenny Elers-Mastrapa, José Ignacio Escalante Quinteiro, Claudia Vega Peña Jorge Patrocinio Herrera-Cruz, Olegario Marín-Machuca, Rodolfo Martín Cornejo-Urbina, Jessica Blanca Vargas-Ayala, Miriam Corina Castro-Rojas, Hermenegilda Gloria Fuertes-Vicente Karen Ganán, Fabiola Chasillacta Mayra Viviana Chipantiza Barrera, Blanca Patricia Díaz Vacacela, Blanca Ofelia Pallango Espín Alicia Monserrath Zabala Haro, Álvaro Sebastián Ron Mora Melissa Olmedo-Muñoz, Ricardo Recalde-Navarrete Verónica Freire-Palacios, Kléber Jaramillo-Galarza, Jessica Quito-Calle, Lenin Orozco-Cantos Johanna Leticia Ortiz González, Daniel Alexander Samaniego Haro, Luis Patricio Llerena Mayorga Camilo Andrés Silva-Sánchez Erolita Jexenia Casquete-Tamayo, Hishochy Delgado Mendoza Rosaralis Arrieta García, Olga Lidia Núñez Rodríguez, Ángel Luis Gómez Cardoso, Estela Morales-Peralta Liberato Cervantes Martínez, Gabriel Arturo Farías Rojas, Wellington Villota Oyarvide, Guillermo Del Campo Saltos Idana Beroska Rincon Soto, Betty Janeth Soledispa Cañarte, Pilar Asunción Soledispa Cañarte, Alain Castro Alfaro Daniel Andrade Girón, William Marín-Rodriguez, Edgardo Carreño Cisneros, Marcelo Zuñiga Rojas, Irina Calvo Rivera German Jazmany Zambrano Verdesoto, Idana Beroska Rincon Soto, Alain Castro Alfaro Lilia Moncerrate Villacis Zambrano, Graciela María Castellanos Pallerols, Frank Lemoine Quitero, María Alejandra Barberán Moreira Lilia Moncerrate Villacis Zambrano, Valeria Cecilia Bravo Gómez, Luis Daniel Zambrano Molina, Víctor Manuel Román Vélez Ritika Karnani, Sandeep Kumar C, Veda Murthy R Justiniano Felix Palomino Quispe, Domingo Zapana Diaz, Leopoldo Choque-Flores, Luis Villar Requis Carbajal, David Quiroz Suarez, Arturo Santino Peña Crisostomo, Pamela Jennifer Sullca-Tapia Senthilkumar T, Tamilselvi Arumugam, Hariprasath Pandurangan, Karthikeyan Panjaiyan Carlos Oscar Lepez, Irene Amelia Simeoni María de las Nieves Veloz Montano María José Chávez Montecino, Nicolás Ramírez Aguilera, Felipe Machuca-Contreras Paúl Fabricio Quiñónez Tipan, Zamarit Paola Salas Molina Elena Johanna Pérez Laborde, Yajaira Marilin Rueda Castillo Beatriz Carrasco Diaz, Elizabeth Solis Albanese Alexandra Abigail Encalada Pardo, Rosa Elizabeth Solorzano, Jennifer Garnica, Adriana Condo Tamara Marcela Palacios Pérez, Gilda Natalia Palacios Pérez, Claudia Gabriela Clavijo Rosales, Heiddy Carolina Romero Ibáñez, Evelyn Paulina Feijoo Rosales Joselyn Macarena López Altamirano, Daniela Alexandra Rosero Freire Ivan Ronaldo Quilambaqui Brito, Danilo Gustavo Muñoz Palomeque Jennifer Garnica, Rosa Solórzano, Alexandra Encadala, Lisseth Guamán Daniela Alexandra Rosero Freire, Stephanie Pamela Urvina Paredes Claudia Gabriela Clavijo Rosales, Ricardo Enrique López Velasco, Joselyn Esthefanía Romero Ibáñez, Jean Pierre Padilla Balarezo, Christian Jonathan Álvarez Arauz Grace Zulema Huanga Huanga, Julio César Ojeda Sánchez Juan Andres Mendez Guerrero, Paola Carolina Sarmiengo Uguña, Victor Manuel Chuqui Orellana Roberto Carlos Mora Vera, Rosa Solorzano, Jorge Andrés Lozano Aveiga, Byron Enrique Peña Cordero Jorge Andrés Lozano Aveiga, María Daniela Toro, Roberto Carlos Mora Vera, Byron Enrique Peña Cordero Felipe Calderón Canales, Daniela Flores Fierro, Bárbara Matus Orellana, Etienne Núñez Allup, Camila Peñailillo Pérez, Ana Ortiz Burgos, Danitza Reinoso Lara Susana Alejandra Avila Vásquez, Cristian Carlos Ramírez Portilla Andrea Crespo, Fabián Jiménez, Pio Cueva Clarisa Isabel Calderón Centeno, Karina Fernanda Pucha Aguinsaca, Doris Elizabeth Aucay Yunga, Cinthya Anabel Muyulema Chimbo, Karla Leonela Ruiz Jumbo, Homero Abel Chacho Aucay María Paz Valdivieso Castro, Julio Cesar Ojeda Sánchez, Jorge Eduardo Ochoa Aucay Miguel Valencia-Contrera, Flerida Rivera-Rojas, Jenifer Villa-Velásquez, Rodrigo Ardiles-Irarrazabal, Naldy Febré, Sandra Valenzuela-Suazo Guadalupe Belen Toapanta Ochoa, Miriam Ivonne Fernández Nieto Marysela Irene Ladera Castañeda, Cristian Gumercindo Medina Sotelo Edison Andrés Tixe Lluglla, María Carolina Chalan Analuisa, Inés Paulina Panimboza Guamán, Jhon Michael Sanaguano Castillo, Pablo Rodrigo Escobar Castillo, Fernanda Gabriela Dután Ortiz, Paola Elizabeth Serpa Román, Michelle Estefanía Quispe Punina Miguel Valencia-Contrera, Flerida Rivera-Rojas, Jenifer Villa-Velasquez, Rodrigo Ardiles-Irarrazabal, Naldy Febre, Sandra Valenzuela-Suazo Nitish Kumar, Vasundhara, Sandeep Kumar Chavan Imran Ahmad, Uzma Noor Shah, Neha Lohia Umar Farooq, Malathi Hanumanthayya, Izharul Haq Upendra Sharma Udayashankar Sulibele, Vivek Sharma, Imran Ahmad Shweta R. Sharma, Suphiya Parveen, Jaspreet Singh Renuka Jyothi Shettru, Divya Shrivastava, Sudhir Singh Asha Kademane, Meenal Dixit, Vasundhara Suhas Ballal, Kratika Pathak, Shweta R. Sharma Vijaya Kishore Veparala, Vattikunta Kalpana Macarena Martínez Órdenes Christopher Hilario Acosta Nuñez, Estefanía Aracelly Reyes Rosero Solanche Stefany Molinas Franco, Dayssy Franco, Andrea Elizabeth López Ramirez, Kátia Christina Rodrigues Souza e Silva, Lidiana dos Santos Penha, Livia Cavalcanti Moret, Paloma Iracema Banak Zilch, Anna Luisa Silva de Oliveira, Camila Barros Araújo, Ester Vitória Costa, Gabriel Batista de Souza, Gabriella Patricia Rodrigues de Oliveira, Rebeca Marins Arantes, Stênio Vasconcelos de Farias Filho, Sthephany Caroliny Santos De Jesus, Wilgner Itiel Teixeira Souza Verónica Sofia Quenorán Almeida, Grace Pamela López Pérez, Valeria Isabel Espín López, Ana Pamela Pachucho Flores Matilde Bolaño García Javier Rojas-Avila, Katiuska Reynaldos-Grandón Víctor Alfonso López-Chango, Edison Arturo Galárraga Pérez Andy Gustavo Sánchez-Sánchez, Ana Gabriela Pacha Jara Nayana Borah, Vijimol G, Heena Baria Vijay Upadhye J, Uzma Noor Shah, Basavaraj Mudhol Geetika Madan Patel, Nayana Borah, Gaurav Kumar Zulieka Homavazir, Beemkumar Nagappan, Arti Singh Shirley Estefania Naranjo Yucailla, Ana Gabriela Pacha Jara Humberto Bravo Jiménez, Néstor Israel Quinapanta Castro, Lizbeth Denisse Casco Luzuriaga, Ximena Gabriela Gordón Villagrán, Daniela Stephanie Montenegro Salas, Sainly del Carmen Montiel Fleire, María de Jesús Mendoza López, Erik Manuel Cushpa Quinapanta, Angelitte Arlette Bravo Montes Edison Javier Tapia Pilamonta, Evelyn Katherine Jaramillo Ruales Jennifer Dayana Erazo Bravo, Evelyn Katherine Jaramillo Ruales Christian Ivan Manobanda Nata, Evelyn Katherine Jaramillo Ruales Marlon Andrés López García, Juan Andrés Barriga Miño, María Belén Medina Rodríguez, Josselin Karina Paredes Acosta, Estefania Abigail Benavides Tutillo, Yessenia del Cisne Gaona Bermeo Milton Israel Navas Atiaja, Alvaro Paul Moina Veloz Ana Belén Guamán Tacuri, Grace Pamela López Pérez Rosario Elizabeth Abril Beltrán, María Marlene Chisag Guamán, Adriana Elizabeth Campos Arroba, Karen Esthefania Benítez Pazmiño, Mónica Alexandra Ocaña Guevara Ángel Rafael Borja Cabrera, Valeria Isabel Espín López, Silvia Graciela Morales Mayorga, María Aurora Simbaña Quishpi, Carola del Rocío Cortéz Flores, Soraya Margoth Heredia Nugra Jessyca Barros Fernandes, Leidiane Lima de Oliveira, Mariana Oliveira Teixeira, Rayson Adriano Monteiro Fernandes, Taianne Criss Meneses Silva de Sousa Joselyn Lissette Martínez Altamirano, Ángel Geovanny Romo López L Motcha Rakkini, VH Hema Karol Mayte Chicaiza Jacome, Elizabeth Proaño Pérez Marcos Manuel Vásquez Mendoza, Juan Carlos Santillán Lima, Silvia Valeska Delgado Quezada, Bryan Martín Morales Morales, Raiza Stephanie Robayo Herrera, Daniel Esteban Ortega Larrea, Jeann Carlo Moncayo Terán, Joselyn Maritza Vargas Paladines, Diana Aracely Sánchez Alquinga Tania Cecibel Cañarte-Rodríguez, Pilar Asunción Soledispa Cañarte, Betty Janeth Soledispa Cañarte, Glenda Marcela Sarmiento Tómala, Leonardo Pablo García Franco Nevenka Roa Contreras, Diego Silva Jiménez, Alicia Infante Peñafiel Jeaneth Maricela Haro Chávez, Esteban Mauricio Castillo Noboa, Juan Carlos Santillán Lima, Dayssy Viviana Crespo Vallejo, Lisseth Gabriela Ríos Latorre, Francisco Javier Maygualema León Gabriela Alexandra Solano Peña, Gabriela Fernanda Acurio Armas, Gabriela Alejandra Díaz Teran, Susana Patricia Palacios Serrano, Andrea Carolina Cobo Reyes, Daniel Albino Pullas Taboada, Gissel Katherine Carvajal Chango Joselyn Vaca, Roberto Acosta Jhonny Richard Rodriguez-Barboza, Flor de María Sánchez-Aguirre, Elba María Andrade-Díaz, Lida Vásquez-Pajuelo, Doris Isabel Goigochea-Parks, Lourdes Ivonne del Carmen Alcaide-Aranda Camilo Andrés Silva-Sánchez, Víctor Pedrero Castillo Silvana Jiménez, Catalina Muñoz, Pascal Vega, Felipe Medina Marín, Sandra Flores-Alvarado Paola Ruiz-Sáez, Lorena Velásquez-Oberreuter, Nicole Torres Zúñiga, Michelle Lapierre Acevedo Claudia Gabriela Clavijo Rosales, Paula Cristina Abad Arias, Johanna Gabriela Alvarez Ordoñez, Melany Tatiana Pacheco Peláez, Robinson Sebastián Ormaza Arévalo Fernando Stalin Freire Villón, Gabriela Alexandra Narváez Bravo, Kevin Andrés Tierra Aguirre, Roberto Albán Espinoza, Claudia Clavijo Rosales Samantha Cordero Díaz, Pablo Cárdenas Palacios, Cindy Chávez López, Eliana Espinoza Tapia, Claudia Clavijo Rosales Kerly Apolo Loayza, Mónica Gabriela Vásconez Chérrez, Sonnia Villegas Paredes, Sebastián Orozco Torres Byron Rubén Martínez Salazar, Luis Eduardo Martínez Salazar, Jennifer Belen Mosquera Arevalo, Christian Gabriel Villa Clavijo, Lady Alexandra Tapia Quiroga Diego Xavier Medina Valarezo, Juan Carlos Armas Ariza, Martha Susana Camacho Pazmiño, Fanny E. Gallardo Arrieta, Kevin Fabián Astudillo Vallejo, Oscar Caicho Caicedo Edison Bolívar Ortiz Freire, Christian Alexander Lema Guaraca, Pedro Manolo García Sarmiento, Germania Elizabeth Ortiz Freire, Mateo Sebastián García Sarmiento, Rubén Argenis Maldonado Cabrera Christian Alexander Lema Guaraca, Victoria Guadalupe Macas Valarezo, Vicente Javier Guerrero Arcentalez, Jacqueline Briggithe Criollo Mendieta, Oscar Esteban Maldonado Espinoza, Diego Germán Cajamarca Velesaca, Estuardo Javier Carrión Abad, Jose Freddy Villa Pallashco Homero Abel Chacho Aucay, Manuel Patricio Naula Naula, Gabriela Estefanía Peralta Lata, María Emilia Tenorio Córdova, María Rosa Chimborazo Guaman, Angela del Rosario Guncay Salazar, Tania Mariela Guzmán Nugra Melany Tatiana Pacheco Peláez, Jorge Cristopher Vega Toapanta, Edgar David Brito Carmona, Christian Gabriel Villa Clavijo, Geovanny Israel Destruge Molina Devora Estefania Manzano Quisimalin, Luis Emilio Merino Gualan, María José Vega Vélez, Vanesa Elizabeth Sarango Guamaní, Carlos Andrés Carrión Granda Héctor Daniel Montes Lainez, Cristhian Xavier Chica Lozada, Ruth Alexandra Díaz Vega, Luis Eduardo Naranjo Tipan, Kely Elvira Arias Quevedo, Ginger Maite González Yépez, Francisco Adrian Calderón Moreano, Gabriela Mercedes Ramírez Moya, Virginia Andrea González Palacios, Manuel Andrés Quinteros Morán, Stephanie Susana Alberca Bonilla, Jean Carlos Cabrera Espinoza, Pamela Elizabeth Vega Chanalata Adrián Alejandro Rojas Concepción, William Castillo González, Carlos Oscar Lepez, Mabel Cecilia Bonardi, Adrián Alejandro Vitón-Castillo, Patricia Alonso Galbán, Carlos Canova Barrios, Felipe Machuca-Contreras, Javier Gonzalez-Argote Adrián Alejandro Rojas Concepción, Adrián Alejandro Vitón-Castillo, Carlos Alberto Gómez Cano, Carlos Canova Barrios, Carlos Oscar Lepez, Felipe Machuca-Contreras, Javier Gonzalez-Argote, Mabel Cecilia Bonardi, Patricia Alonso Galbán, William Castillo-González ,

Published: January 1, 2023

Contents

2023-02-20 Editorial
Author Guidelines

By Comité Editorial Salud, Ciencia y Tecnología

2023-12-20 Original
Analysis of the role of nursing in the organ donation process

The organ donation procedure is a matter of paramount importance within the healthcare field, given its ability to save lives and enhance the well-being of a significant number of individuals. Within this context, the discipline of nursing emerges as a crucial element throughout the various phases of the process. The aim of the research was to analyze the role of nursing in the organ donation process. This study focused on surveys randomly distributed to 20 nursing students at the Universidad Regional Autónoma de los Andes in Ecuador. The survey consisted of 7 questions designed to assess the students' perceptions and experiences with organ donation. The main results indicate a lack of practical experience in organ donation among the students, with a predominance in the perception of their role as coordinators and providers of emotional support. Significant challenges were identified related to the lack of resources and interprofessional coordination, as well as training and education in organ donation perceived as insufficient by a majority of the respondents. The study's conclusion suggests the need for educational and structural reform within the field of nursing and organ donation. The optimization of academic and practical training, along with the improvement of interdisciplinary collaboration and resource allocation, are presented as essential elements to strengthen the role of nursing and improve the organ donation process

By Gloria Rebeca Medina Naranjo, Shirley Katherine Barrera Loayza, Tania Gabriela Simbaña Toledo

2023-12-20 Original
Analysis of the nurse's relationship with family members of critically ill patients through literature

In intensive care settings, the main focus is on direct medical intervention, while communication and emotional support to families may not be sufficiently addressed in the realm of nursing care. The aim of the study was to analyze the nurse-family relationship with relatives of critical patients through a bibliographic review. This study was carried out through a narrative review of the literature, in which the search period extended from 2016 to 2024. The review was conducted using the PubMed database, and it was decided to include articles in both English and Spanish. The selected search keywords included "Palliative care," "nurse role," "Intensive Care Unit," "critical patient," and "patient relatives," as well as their Spanish equivalents: "palliative care," "nurse role," "Intensive Care Unit," "critical patient," and "patient relatives." This study highlights that effective communication and adequate emotional support from nurses to the relatives of critical patients are fundamental to improving the experience and wellbeing of families in intensive care units, underlining the need for specialized training and further research in these areas. The overarching conclusion of this study is that strengthening the relationship between nurses and the relatives of critical patients, through effective communication and appropriate emotional support, is crucial to improving the quality and humanization of care in intensive care units

By Gloria Rebeca Medina Naranjo, Shirley Katherine Barrera Loayza, Christopher Alexander Analuisa Apupalo

2023-12-20 Original
Literature review interpretation of novel bacteriophage treatments for skin diseases

The justification for researching novel treatments with bacteriophages for skin diseases lies in the urgent need to overcome the challenges posed by antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to interpret, through bibliographic review, novel treatments with bacteriophages in skin diseases. A comprehensive search strategy was developed in highly recognized academic and scientific databases, including PUBMED, MEDLINE, Scopus, Clinical Key, and Web of Science. The selection of key terms was based on an iterative process that included "bacteriophages", "phages", "treatment", "phage therapy", "skin diseases", "dermatology", and "clinical applications". This strategy was complemented by the application of filters to restrict the results to publications between the years 2019 and 2023. The results of the reviewed studies suggested clinical resolution in approximately half of the cases treated with phage therapy, highlighting its effectiveness against resistant bacterial infections. However, it was noted that more rigorous clinical trials were required to establish its long-term efficacy and safety. The emerging bacteriophage therapy industry showed a diversity of companies and strategies, promoting its growth in the medical community. It was concluded that bacteriophages represent a promising addition to the medical arsenal and a hopeful response to antimicrobial resistance. The review reflected how science and medicine collaborated to address a crucial global challenge, offering innovative solutions in the treatment of bacterial infections

By Jeanneth Elizabeth Jami Carrera, Joshua Ismael Paredes Cisneros, Natalia del Carmen Andrade Cordero, Nayely Belén Quintana Amores

2023-12-20 Original
Childish malnutrition, inequity and access to healthcare in Eugenio Espejo

This study addresses child malnutrition in Parroquia Eugenio Espejo, Ecuador, highlighting the relationship between malnutrition, inequity and access to health services. Through a descriptive, quantitative, correlational and cross-sectional approach, a non-probabilistic sample of 81 children aged 0 to 60 months, selected from a population of 508, was analyzed. Three instruments were used: a registry of anthropometric data analyzed with the WHO Anthro program to evaluate growth patterns; a questionnaire on inequity, adapted from INEGI (ENSANUT) Mexico 2019, which collected sociodemographic data of the child and his caregiver; and a survey on perception of access to health, also adapted from INEGI. The findings revealed that 47% of caregivers, predominantly young parents with incomes below minimum wage and primary education, reported acute malnutrition in 1.23% of cases, chronic malnutrition or stunting in 34.57%, and low weight for age in 6.17%. Inequity was manifested in economic difficulties and lack of knowledge, with a diet deficient in protein and micronutrients, and non-compliance with the recommended five meal times. However, protective practices such as breastfeeding, limiting salt and sugar in meals, and supplementation promoted by the Ministry of Public Health of Ecuador were identified. It is concluded that there is dissatisfaction with the care received in the health units, although satisfaction with the needs covered by the health system and the perception of timely health care is recognized

By Leonel Gerardo Ruano Yarpaz, Erika Marcela León Revelo

2023-12-19 Original
Effects associated with the devaluation of women in a rural parish in the province of Loja

The devaluation of women has become a problem that has been manifested and evidenced by various events that reflect contempt, constant questioning and the violation of the rights of the female gender in various scenarios. In Ecuador, at the rural level, gender violence has affected approximately 62% of women. This article was proposed with the objective of analyzing the effects associated with said devaluation on the political, social and economic dimensions. At a methodological level, a scientific and synthetic method was applied, a qualitative approach, and 72 women were taken as the population to whom interviews and focus groups were applied. The results of the interviews reflected that unanimously in the San Lucas community there is inequality in relation to men, a product of a sexist environment, this despite the economic and social continuation that women carry out at the local, national and international level in the economic context. From the focus group, it was identified that women perform traditional roles mainly associated with household chores and family care; occasionally these roles were combined with agricultural work that they performed without receiving remuneration. It was concluded that devaluation has not only had an impact on the limited participation of women at an economic, social and political level, so the lack of presence in this last aspect also has an impact on the lack of actions to counteract the problem of their devaluation.

By Enith del Carmen Armijos Robles, Diana Maribel Armijos Robles, María Estefani Juca Pañega, Alcivar Alejandro Vega Sánchez

2023-12-20 Original
Bibliographic review on hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis in white shrimp penaeus vannamei: a current emerging disease

Aquaculture plays a key role in meeting the growing global demand for food, and shrimp farming in particular plays an important role in the global economy and food security. However, the industry faces formidable challenges, mainly attributed to disease outbreaks. The objective of this review was to reflect on hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis, taxonomy, biological cycle, transmission and diagnosis as an emerging pathology that affects the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. A descriptive bibliographic review study was carried out, with a qualitative and exploratory approach, through the search of scientific articles, books and government documents relevant to the topic of shrimp farming and hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis (HPM). The microsporidium parasite Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei infects the hepatopancreas of its host and causes hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis, a condition that has been associated with slow animal growth and large economic losses. This review addresses the biology and pathophysiology of this disease, the dynamics of transmission and infection by this pathogenic agent and practical control measures that are being applied to limit its negative impact on shrimp farming

By Raúl González Salas, Mildre Mercedes Vidal del Río, Marco Paul Medina Valencia, Matías Gabriel Jaramillo López

2023-12-31 Original
Workplace Violence and Emotional Intelligence among Nursing Professionals at a National Hospital in Northern Peru

Introduction: Workplace violence is identified as a growing challenge in the healthcare sector, negatively impacting both nursing professionals and the quality of patient care. In this context, emotional intelligence emerges as a key tool for mitigating the effects of workplace violence, facilitating effective stress management, and enhancing interpersonal relationships in the workplace. Method: The study employed a quantitative, correlational, cross-sectional design. The sample consisted of 183 nurses from a National Hospital in Chiclayo, Peru, selected through probabilistic sampling. Two instruments were used: the EVP-health questionnaire to assess workplace violence and the TMMS-24 scale to measure emotional intelligence. Results: Findings indicate that 45.3% of respondents experienced a high level of workplace violence, while 61.8% showed a low level of emotional intelligence. Additionally, a negative correlation between workplace violence and emotional intelligence was found, demonstrating that high levels of violence are associated with low levels of emotional intelligence. Conclusions: The study concludes that enhancing emotional intelligence in nurses could be crucial in reducing workplace violence in healthcare settings. The implementation of emotional intelligence training programs for healthcare staff is suggested, not only to improve the work environment but also to enhance the quality of care provided to patients. The research highlights the need to address these aspects to promote a safer and more efficient work environment in the healthcare sector.

By Rocío Huamán Vargas, Fabriciana Quijano Remigio, Mónica Elisa Meneses-La-Riva, Wilter C. Morales-García, María Teresa Cabanillas-Chavez

2023-12-20 Original
Narrative literature review on the complexity of the internal anatomy of root canals

The intricate and highly variable nature of the internal anatomy of root canals poses significant challenges for effective endodontic treatments. The aim of the study was to interpret the complexity of the internal anatomy of root canals through a narrative literature review. This study adopted an exploratory methodology and was characterized by its observational and descriptive nature, analyzing information from a cross-sectional and retrospective perspective. An exhaustive evaluation of 25 articles was conducted on PubMed, Google Scholar, and Elsevier through ScienceDirect, from 2016 to 2023. This study revealed that a deep understanding of the internal root anatomy and its variations is essential for the success of endodontic treatments, highlighting the importance of advanced diagnostic techniques, such as Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT), for identifying anomalies. It was found that anatomical variations, including C-shaped canals, lateral canals, and apical deltas, are more prevalent in posterior teeth. Moreover, anterior lower teeth rarely exhibit more than one root, with Vertucci type I classification predominating in their internal anatomy, which implies less complexity compared to posterior teeth. It concludes that success in endodontics critically depends on detailed knowledge of the internal root anatomy. The findings emphasize the need to apply precise diagnostic techniques and adapt treatment strategies to the specific anatomical complexity of each tooth, especially in those with more complex root configurations

By Luis Fernando Pérez Solis, Elizabeth Paulina Reinoso Toledo

2024-03-30 Original
¿Professional Quality of Life and Job Stress among Nurses in COVID-19 Areas

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has posed unprecedented challenges in the healthcare field, notably affecting nursing professionals working in critical areas. These challenges have impacted their professional quality of life (PQoL) and increased job stress levels, which are crucial for both the well-being of healthcare personnel and the quality of care provided to patients. Objective: This study aims to explore the relationship between professional quality of life and job stress among nurses at a medium-complexity hospital in Lima, Peru, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A quantitative, non-experimental, cross-sectional, correlational methodology was used, with a non-probabilistic sample of 59 nurses. Data were collected through online questionnaires assessing PQoL and job stress, using validated tools such as the Nursing Stress Scale and the PQoL-35 Questionnaire. Results: The majority of participants (69.5%) perceive their PQoL as good, highlighting high levels of intrinsic motivation and perceived quality of life. In contrast, workload was the most negatively valued aspect. Job stress was perceived as low overall, and a moderate positive correlation between PQoL and job stress (r = 0.517; p < 0.05) was found, suggesting that better working conditions could improve PQoL. Workload was identified as a significant factor of job stress. Conclusions: Despite the challenges imposed by the pandemic, nurses maintain a positive perception of their PQoL, especially in terms of intrinsic motivation and perceived quality of life. However, workload is highlighted as a critical factor of job stress.

By Enoc Tito López Mamani, Janet Mercedes Arévalo-Ipanaqué, Monica Elisa Meneses-La-Riva, Wilter C. Morales-García, María Teresa Cabanillas-Chavez, Mardel Morales-García

2023-12-31 Original
Aortic peak flow variation as a predictor of fluid responsiveness in pediatric septic shock patients under mechanical ventilation

Introduction: Effective fluid management is crucial in pediatric critical care, particularly for patients with septic shock. Aortic Peak Flow Variation (APFV) has emerged as a potential predictor of fluid responsiveness, yet its utility in pediatric septic shock patients under mechanical ventilation remains underexplored.
Objective: To evaluate the predictive accuracy of APFV for fluid responsiveness in pediatric septic shock patients undergoing mechanical ventilation and to establish optimal APFV cutoff values for clinical application.
Methods: In this prospective observational study conducted from January to September 2023 at the PICU of Hospital Padre Carollo "Un Canto a la Vida," 26 pediatric septic shock patients were enrolled. Hemodynamic variables were measured before and after a standard fluid bolus of 10 ml/kg. APFV was calculated using transthoracic echocardiography, with fluid responsiveness defined as a ≥10% increase in stroke volume index post-fluid administration. Sensitivity, specificity, and ROC curve analyses were employed to evaluate APFV's predictive capability.
Results: Out of 26 patients, 17 (65.4%) responded to fluid administration. The mean APFV across all patients was 12.5%. ROC curve analysis determined an APFV cutoff of 13.4% for predicting fluid responsiveness, yielding a sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 83%, with an AUROC of 0.83.
Conclusions: APFV demonstrated a moderate to high level of accuracy in predicting fluid responsiveness in pediatric septic shock patients under mechanical ventilation. The identified APFV cutoff provides a practical reference for clinicians in fluid management decisions within this patient population.

By Alfredo Carlos Rodríguez-Portelles, Arianna Maité Céspedes Rómulo, Reynaldo Carvajal Choque, Daniela Stephanie Montenegro Salas, Isaura Jaimes, Fátima Paola Altamirano Jara, Verónica Alexandra Flores Santander, Onelis Góngora Gómez

2023-12-20 Original
Interpretation of the effect of using whitening toothpastes through a literature review

Advertising and marketing play a crucial role in the perception of the effectiveness of whitening toothpastes. The study's aim was to interpret the effect of using whitening toothpastes through a literature review. This study adopted a hermeneutic perspective to interpret the collected data. The implemented methodology was observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, and retrospective. A search was conducted in the PubMed and Google Scholar databases in English, as well as SciELO, Scopus, and Elsevier in Spanish, using key terms in both languages. Ultimately, 25 articles offering valuable and relevant information for the study were analyzed. The study revealed that whitening toothpastes, specifically Colgate Maxwhite, Colgate Luminous White, and Crest with peroxide, stand out for their ability to significantly improve color and provide an effective polish to the dental surface, compared to other brands that do not achieve these results. Additionally, the importance of selecting toothpastes with a Relative Dentin Abrasivity (RDA) index of less than 250 to prevent dental sensitivity and enamel damage is emphasized. Although no significant differences were found in the enamel's microhardness among the pastes evaluated, Crest appears to offer superior resistance on the external surface of the dental tissue. The study's major conclusion underscores the need for an informed choice of whitening toothpastes, prioritizing those with evidence of efficacy in improving dental color and maintaining a low abrasivity index to protect dental health

By Luis Fernando Pérez Solís, Elizabeth Paulina Reinoso Toledo, Katherine Cristina Miranda Coello, Norma Ximena Peñaloza Pérez

2023-03-21 Original
Cognitive skills and critical thinking interventions for the development of academic writing in higher education students: a systematic review

This systematic review examines interventions designed to improve academic writing skills and emphasizes the importance of interaction between students, instructors, and/or writing tutors during the composition process.
The main objective of this review is to characterize the interventions focused on cognitive skills for the development of academic writing in higher education students that have been implemented in Latin American and Ibero-American countries.
To carry out this Systematic Review, the PRISMA recommendations were followed and, in addition, a documentary research and content analysis strategy was implemented with the purpose of examining the different definitions of cognitive abilities used in the selected studies.
In total, nine articles that met the established criteria were identified and analyzed. A comprehensive and updated view of interventions aimed at improving academic writing skills in the context of higher education is offered, focusing on the application of cognitive skills and critical thinking as key tools for this purpose.

By Joselin Sandoval-Cárcamo, Nicole Arias-Roa, Beatriz Magaly Arancibia-Gutiérrez

2023-12-20 Original
Comparison of the dental cutting efficiency of dyke drills used in absolute isolation

Absolute isolation is one of the indispensable procedures in dental practice when applied in clinical situations. The objective of this study was to compare two dam drills in order to determine which one allows a clean cut without irregularities. Two perforators were used, a used one called Awan and a new one called Golgram. Twenty-four rubber dykes were also used, which were divided into two groups and coded. Each group consisted of 12 dykes, being blue colored for one group and green colored for the other group. Twenty boreholes were drilled for each driller's hole in each dike, giving a total of 100 boreholes per dike. These perforations were subsequently analyzed under the microscope. With the Awan perforator and the green colored dyke, it was found that with technique one (only applying pressure) 53% imperfect perforations and 47% clean perforations were obtained. With technique two (pressure plus stretching), 14.5% of imperfect perforations and 85.5% of clean perforations were observed. With the Golgram perforator and the blue dike, it was found that with technique one, 47% of imperfect perforations and 52.5% of clean perforations were obtained. With technique two, 42.5% of imperfect perforations and 57.5% of clean perforations were observed. It was concluded that the Sanctuary brand dam and the Awan drill are efficient during drilling, producing clean holes

By Luis Darío Pérez Villalba, María de los Ángeles Aliaga Toapanta, Lady Dina Tuitsa Picham, Miguel Ángel Lomas Toscano

2023-12-20 Original
Literature review on the need for a protocol for hemodynamic monitoring of critical patients in Ecuador

The proper management of critically ill patients, especially in terms of cardiovascular system handling and homeostasis, requires efficient hemodynamic monitoring. Although countries such as Spain and Argentina have developed advanced programs for monitoring these alterations, Ecuador lacks a standardized protocol in this area, limiting the ability to provide optimal care. This study aimed to demonstrate the importance of establishing a specific protocol for the hemodynamic monitoring of critically ill patients in Ecuador. Through an extensive bibliographic review using various sources such as Google Scholar, institutional repositories of UNIANDES and the Technical University of Ambato, as well as databases like Scielo, Elsevier, Medline, and Pubmed, relevant information was collected and analyzed. The results highlighted the critical relevance of hemodynamic monitoring to detect early alterations in the cardiovascular function of critically ill patients, significantly improving clinical outcomes through timely and appropriate interventions. Implementing a hemodynamic monitoring protocol would not only improve the safety and prognosis of these patients but also provide a basis for more informed clinical decision-making. In conclusion, the study emphasizes the urgent need to develop and adopt a standardized hemodynamic monitoring protocol in Ecuador, with the aim of optimizing care and improving health outcomes in critically ill patients, especially in the context of challenges such as COVID-19 and future pandemics

By Iris Anahí Trávez Sandoval, María Carolina Saltos Barre, Gerardo Ramos Serpa, Gloria Rebeca Medina Naranjo

2023-12-20 Original
Impact of antimicrobial resistance in critically ill patients in the intensive care unit

According to the Pan American Health Organization, multidrug-resistant pathogens are responsible for an increase in morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients, leading to higher healthcare costs due to the need for prescribing more expensive medications. The aim of the research was to identify, through literature review, the impact of antimicrobial resistance in Intensive Care Units. The bibliographic review study employed a qualitative methodology; its scope was explanatory, and it utilized the historical-logical method for theoretical knowledge acquisition. For empirical knowledge, documentary analysis was used, including publications found in databases such as Scielo, PubMed, Lilacs, Dialnet, Redalyc, Google Scholar, Elsevier, institutional repositories, among others. It was evidenced that the direct causes of death and bacterial resistance in the Intensive Care Unit are sepsis, followed by septic shock, the multi-organ dysfunction syndrome, and some of the antimicrobials currently used in ICUs, such as Piperacillin-Tazobactam, Cefepime, Amikacin, Cefotaxime, and the germs that showed resistance to these antimicrobials, firstly identified were Enterobacter Aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus Aureus. It is concluded that, in terms of the incidence of healthcare-associated infections, there is a significant impact on the health system, increasing the morbidity and mortality of the patient by up to 50%, including longer hospital stays, greater use of antibiotics, worse prognosis, higher complication rates, and even death

By Adisnay Rodríguez Plasencia, Gabriela Esthefanía Ortiz Vásquez, Riber Fabián Donoso Noroña, Nairovys Gómez Martínez

2023-12-20 Original
Interpretation by narrative literature review of the factors involved in sleep disorders

Concern for identifying and understanding the variables that affect sleep quality has been increasing in recent years, although more studies are needed in this line of research. The aim of the study was to interpret, through a narrative literature review, the factors involved in sleep disorders. Methodologically, the study was classified as observational, descriptive, cross-sectional and retrospective. A hermeneutic approach was adopted to interpret and deeply understand the existing literature on factors influencing sleep quality and its effects on general health. The role of the glymphatic system in the elimination of brain metabolic wastes and how good sleep quality facilitates neuroprotective processes is highlighted. The findings highlight the importance of improving sleep hygiene and developing personalized interventions for its management, suggesting the adoption of innovative approaches in future research, such as the application of theories like neutrosophic. This review urges the adoption of innovative approaches to sleep research, including the application of theories such as neutrosophic, to address the complexity of these phenomena more effectively. In conclusion, this systematic review evidences the interconnectedness between multiple factors that impact sleep quality and underscores the need for multidisciplinary approaches to its management. Understanding these factors through a heuristic approach not only facilitates a better interpretation of the underlying mechanisms affecting sleep, but also guides the development of more effective and personalized intervention strategies

By Roberto Javier Aguilar Berrezueta, Blanca Cristina Estrella López, Guido Nino Guida Acevedo, Valeria Lisseth López Pérez

2023-12-20 Original
Bibliographic review on acrylic materials modified with nanoparticles for the development of dental prostheses

Nanoparticles used in the making of dental prostheses reduce the microbial load in the oral cavity. The aim of the study was to interpret acrylic materials modified with nanoparticles for the development of dental prostheses with a view to describing their antimicrobial properties against Candida Albicans. An exhaustive bibliographic review of scientific articles selected through databases such as PubMed, Elsevier, Science Direct, and SciELO was developed, using MeSH terms in both English and Spanish. The literature selection was guided by the PRISMA methodology. The results of this study demonstrate the positive impact of nanoparticles in the field of dentistry, especially in the manufacturing of dental prostheses. It has been shown that acrylics modified with nanoparticles offer effective antimicrobial properties against pathogens such as Candida Albicans, in addition to presenting greater biocompatibility with oral tissues. Likewise, these nanoparticle-enriched prostheses stand out for their improved resistance to wear and greater hardness, compared to conventional prostheses. The main conclusion of the study highlights the relevance of nanotechnology as a revolutionary tool in improving the materials used in dentistry, particularly in dental prostheses. The incorporation of nanoparticles into the acrylics not only enhances the antimicrobial properties and biocompatibility of these prostheses but also significantly improves their durability and resistance. These advances represent a significant step towards the development of more effective and safer solutions for patients

By Noemí Estefanía Morales Morales, Norma Ximena Peñaloza Pérez, Katherine Cristina Miranda Coello

2023-12-31 Original
Explanatory model for the Control of the risk of obesity in Mexican adolescents

Aim: Estimate the explanatory value of the Obesity Risk Control model in adolescents with normal weight and overweight, guided by the Health Promotion Model, Methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional, analytical study. The sample was calculated for a simple linear regression model that included age, sex, body mass index, personality traits, economic level, appetite traits, emotional eating, social support through social networks, family social support, self-regulation and locus of control. Spearman's Rho coefficient (p < .05) and linear regression (p < .001) were used, Results: 518 adolescents participated. The average age was 16.8 years (SD 0.9). 55.8% were women. The average body mass index was 23.1 kg/m2 (SD 2.7). 61.9% of female and 59.0% of male adolescents were of normal weight. Physical activity was poor in 74.3% and regular eating habits in 54.6%. The model was made up of seven explanatory variables that were: sex, personality traits of kindness, responsibility, squeamish attitude, self-regulation in physical activity and eating habits, as well as internal locus of control, which explained 27%, Conclusions: The Obesity Risk Control model was made up of seven variables that explained 27% of the behavior, preserving the Health Promotion Model constructs. It is important to conduct research that incorporates commitment to an action plan and immediate competition preferences, as these are constructs that take precedence over health-promoting behavior and that, if present, favor or impact behavior.

By Diana Cristina Navarro Rodríguez, Milton Carlos Guevara Valtier, Ana María Salinas Martínez, María de los Ángeles Paz Morales, Velia Margarita Cárdenas Villarreal, Silvia Guadalupe Soltero Rivera

2023-12-20 Original
Comparison of the adhesion of adhesive pastes on removable dental prostheses from different commercial companies

The use of conventional removable dental prostheses shows the lack of retention and stability, so the use of adhesives for prostheses has been generalized to improve their resistance to detachment. The adhesion of adhesive pastes in removable dental prostheses of different commercial companies was compared. The empirical component involved an in vitro experiment using two adhesive pastes: Corega and Denta Firme, applied on acrylic discs that were previously hydrated and then placed on glass slabs to measure the adhesion strength. This process involved the uniform application of 5 ml of each paste on the discs, followed by a hydration period of 8 minutes. Adhesion strength was measured using a digital scale, recording the highest value obtained during vertical debonding of the disc from the tile. This study revealed that the differences in the bond strength of the adhesive pastes evaluated for dentures are minimal. Denta Firme demonstrated the highest bond strength in the short term. It is concluded that the study failed to determine the durability of the bond strength of the pastes over time. However, the findings indicate that the use of adhesives significantly improves the retention of conventional removable or total dentures. Consequently, it is recommended that dental professionals carefully choose the most appropriate adhesive for each patient, considering individual characteristics and specific needs, in order to take full advantage of the benefits offered by these products

By Noemí Estefanía Morales Morales, Nicole Andrea Arcos Núñez

2023-12-20 Original
Determinant factors of nursing care in oncological palliative care in type C health unit

Nursing care in oncological palliative care is essential to improve the quality of life of cancer patients in advanced stages. The aim of this research was to establish the determinant factors influencing nursing care for oncological patients in palliative care in a Type C Health Unit in Ecuador. It was an observational, prospective, cross-sectional, and descriptive study. A survey was conducted on 22 Nursing Graduates from a Type C Health Center in Ecuador. The results indicated that 59.1% of professionals are familiar with the term palliation, 50% associate palliative care with the relief of suffering, while 90% accurately understand the goal of palliative care and the medication used to alleviate pain in patients. Furthermore, 81.8% of the staff possess the necessary knowledge to educate families, however, 72.7% have not received training on the subject in the last year, and 86.4% in the last six months. Therefore, it is conclusively demonstrated that there are weaknesses in aspects related to the theoretical and practical domain of palliative care applicable to oncological patients. Additionally, a significant need to improve training and updating programs for nurses' professional profiles is identified

By Nairovys Gómez Martínez, Riber Fabián Donoso Noroña, Adisnay Rodríguez Plasencia, Freddy Wladimir Sisa Alban

2023-01-01 Original
Bachelor of Science in Nursing faculty perceptions of distance education during the COVID-19 pandemic

Introduction: the COVID-19 pandemic generated a disruption in the modality of face-to-face education, forcing an abrupt migration to virtuality with little or no prior preparation, which makes it necessary to analyze the perception and satisfaction of teachers with the development of activities in this format.
Objective: to analyze the perception and satisfaction with education in virtual modality during the COVID-19 pandemic of the teachers of the Nursing Degree of the University Institute of the Argentine Federal Police of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Methods: a descriptive, cross-sectional, and quantitative study was designed. The sample consisted of 23 teachers who responded to an instrument consisting of 21 questions with closed response options.
Results: the mean age was 52 years (SD: 10), 87 % were women and 79,9 % have children, 56,5 % are teachers of third-year subjects of the curriculum and 56,5 % have a degree level of training. 65,2 % mentioned that in virtuality their main difficulty was the resistance of students to turn on their cameras and 43,5 % perceive the qualifications obtained in virtuality as equivalent to face-to-face. Those who possessed a postgraduate degree (p=0,005) and those who wished to continue virtual activities after isolation (p=0,041) were found to have higher levels of satisfaction.
Conclusions: an average level of satisfaction was found with a score of 6.8 out of 10 and the perception of the virtual modality for the development of classes during the pandemic was positive.

By Silvina Soledad Hernández, Patricia Graciela Méndez, Liliana Rosa Sosa, Marcela Anahí Flores, Mónica Andrea Rodríguez, Carlos Jesús Canova Barrios

2023-01-18 Original
Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the use of contraceptive methods, Chile

Introduction: Daily life was affected during the COVID-19 pandemic period, so a difficulty in obtaining supplies (merchandise, employment, services, etc.) was contemplated, delving specifically into obtaining contraceptives.
Objectives: Describe the impact of the pandemic in relation to use of contraceptive methods in women between 18- and 23-years old residing in Viña del Mar.
Methodology: The study is a quantitative, cross-sectional, non-probabilistic sampling, called "snowball". A survey was made to women residents of the city of Viña del Mar. The sample size consisted of 90 people in total, with a cohort point between 18 and 23 years old.
Results: 85% of the respondents are students. The most commonly used contraceptive methods are the pill and the external condom. During the pandemic (2020, 2021, 2022) 12.87% abandoned their contraceptive method, while 17.76% changed it.
Conclusion: The pandemic is a determining factor in the adherence to contraceptive methods, although the results obtained in this study are positive in comparison to other research, it should be considered that the interruption of these methods implies a violation of sexual and reproductive rights, which should be guaranteed in spite of being in crisis.

By Felipe Calderón Canales, Nayarett Agüero Guerra, Francisca Álamos Silva, Claudia Andrade Millalonco, Paulina Jubal Morales, Catalina Waymann Landini

2023-03-13 Original
Preconception diet and its relationship with hemoglobin in rural and urban women of San Francisco Cozoaltepec and Puerto Escondido, Oaxaca

Introduction: During pregnancy, pregnant women have nutritional needs that are calculated based on recommendations for non-pregnant women (preconception stage), as well as caloric needs, which depend on physical activity and development. One of the main problems with the diet is insufficient iron intake due to the increase in muscle mass and blood volume.
Objective: To describe the preconception diet of women with prenatal care and its relationship with hemoglobin in the rural area of San Francisco Cozoaltepec and the urban area of Puerto Escondido, belonging to the Oaxacan coast region.
Methods: To evaluate the nutrition of the preconception diet, the "Frequency of food consumption" questionnaire and the "24-hour recall" were used. To assess the hemoglobin level, the "first clinical record" attached to the medical record was taken.
Results: Sixty pregnant women were included (25.83±0.92 years in the urban area and 26.03±1.18 years in the rural area, respectively). During the first stage of pregnancy, the hemoglobin concentration was within normal parameters, with greater significance in the rural area (13.24 ± 0.30 units).
Conclusion: The hemoglobin concentration in both study areas was within normal parameters; however, the value in the rural area is higher compared to the urban area, and this difference is related to altitude above sea level. An inadequate nutritional status was also observed in both populations.

By Merary Flores-García, Héctor Cruz-Santiago, Juan Antonio García-Baltazar, Moisés Alberto Torres-Olivera, Alma Delia Ramírez-Figueroa, Narciso Ysac Ávila-Serrano, Idana Beroska Rincon Soto

2023-03-12 Original
Humanized nursing care in hospitalized patients

Introduction: The hospitalized patient demands a series of specialized care that only the patient can supply during the hospital stay. Although treatment efforts are focused on the biological part, a significant reduction within the human aspect of the person cannot be allowed. Humanized care must be holistic and comprehensive so that hospital experiences are less traumatic.
Objectives: The objective of the study was to analyze the perspective of the hospitalized patient in relation to the humanized care provided by the nursing professional.
Method: Descriptive quantitative field research with cross section. The object population was 240 participants in different hospital units, the sample was made up of 200 patients selected by inclusion and exclusion criteria. The data collection was carried out through a structured survey (PCHE) using a 4-point Likert scale, later the data was tabulated in the SPSS program. The research was framed within the bioethical aspects established in the Declaration of Helsinki.
Results: As a result, it was obtained that nursing professionals had greater acceptability and credibility in gynecology and pediatric services, this being a positive aspect in humanized care.
Conclusion: Finally, it is concluded that the work of the nurse is of utmost importance in the daily care of the hospitalized patient, humanized care is a specialized responsibility where the nurse must implement the skills to communicate effectively, which reduces the chances of that the patient experiences a torturous and negative stay.

By Pablo Andrés Catota Tiban, Yeisy Cristina Guarate Coronado

2023-02-22 Original
Malnutrition and its association with intellectual coefficient in children from a school in Seville de oro. Province of Azuay, Ecuador, 2023

Introduction: in Ecuador, malnutrition is considered a public health problem since it affects approximately one in four children. This figure increases in the Inter-Andean region, since it is influenced by the socioeconomic situation or nutrition, causing problems in cognitive development due to compromised IQ.
Aim: to determine malnutrition and its association with IQ in school children from 6 to 10 years old who belong to two rural schools in the canton of Sevilla de Oro in the province of Azuay, Ecuador.
Methodology: observational, analytical, cross-sectional study, 119 children from 6 to 10 years of age were used as a sample, selected by stratified random sampling. The parameters of the World Health Organization for weight and height were used to determine the body mass index for placement in the corresponding percentile. The Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT) was used to assess IQ.
Results: 7.6% of the study population showed malnutrition, of which 63.9% were below average in IQ. The statistical association test used was chi-square, with a P value of 0.856.
Conclusions: There was no statistically significant association between malnutrition and below average IQ.

By Gabriela Estefanía Peralta Lata, María José Pesántez Puente, Julio Cesar Ojeda Sánchez, Viviana Katherine Rimbaldo Loaiza

2023-03-14 Original
Clinical expressions in children born from mothers infected by the zika virus during pregnancy Pediatric Hospital Borrás-Marfán. 2016-2018

Introduction: The infection of the Zika virus that is endemic in Asia and Africa has now been extended to the Americas. This virus is considered teratogenic, producing a new disease that must be studied in depth.
Objetives: This is to identify the clinical expressions found in children from mothers infected with the Zika virus during their pregnancy, and thereby establish the possible association of the time of the prenatal exposure to the Zika virus and the positive clinical findings.
Methods: We carried out a transversal descriptive study, with 86 children from women having had an infection by the Zika virus, which were pregnant between January 2016 and December 2018. For the correlation between the presence of positive findings and the trimester of pregnancy at the detection of the infection by the Zika virus, we used Spearman’s correlation with a significance level of p ≤ 0.05.
Results: Out of the total number of patients included in the study, 27 expressed a positive clinical finding. Among the neurological disorders, those related to muscular tone were the most frequent (15.48%), followed by psychomotor retardation (10.71%) and microcephaly (9.52%). An association was observed between the prenatal exposure to the Zika virus during the first trimester of pregnancy and the presence of positive clinical findings.
Conclusions: There was a prevalence of neurological expressions, followed by visual expressions. The evidence proved that the exposure to the Zika virus during the first trimester of pregnancy had a teratogenic effect.

By Estela Morales-Peralta, Amanda Alonso-Valle, Gretell Huertas-Pérez, Flabia Marrero-Domínguez, Beatriz Suárez-Besil, Beatriz Marcheco-Teruel

2023-02-06 Original
Perception and level of knowledge in nursing students about palliative care

Background: Palliative care improves the quality of life of patients and their families by preventing, relieving suffering and symptoms in patients suffering from terminal illness who no longer have curative medical treatment.
Objective: to determine the perception and level of knowledge in nursing students about palliative care.
Method: this is a quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study developed at the Technical University of Ambato with a population of 141 sixth and seventh semester students. For data collection, the survey technique was used with a Palliative Care Knowledge Test questionnaire (PCKT) as an instrument.
Results: in the philosophy dimension, a low level of knowledge was obtained, while in the dimensions of pain, dyspnea, psychiatric problems and gastrointestinal problems the results were positive.
Conclusion: in general and globally, the palliative care knowledge of nursing students is high.

By Katherine Pamela Tandalla Yanez, Nadihezka Amanda Cusme Torres

2023-03-05 Original
Measurement of the optic nerve sheath with the usual measurement method and the CLOSED protocol. Concordance study among the doctors of the intensive care unit of the General Teaching Hospital of Ambato

Introduction: measuring the diameter of the optic nerve sheath is a widely used procedure for neuromonitoring, since it is a fairly reliable indicator of the state of intracranial pressure.
Objective: To establish the degree of correlation and concordance between the traditional measurements and with the CLOSED protocol of the diameter of the optic nerve, among the doctors of the Intensive Care Unit of the General Teaching Hospital of Ambato
Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional, agreement study was carried out. Fifteen general practitioners residing in the ICU of the General Teaching Hospital of Ambato were included. A healthy volunteer was selected for optic nerve sheath diameter measurement. Measurements were made with the usual technique and, following the CLOSED protocol with ultrasound. Agreement was determined using the Bland-Altman method.
Results: Traditional method: right sheath (x̄: 0.442; SD: 0.111); left sheath (x̄: 0.486; SD: 0.0995). CLOSED protocol: right sheath (x̄: 0.411; SD: 0.0128); left sheath (x̄: 0.445; SD: 0.00834). Pearson's correlation coefficient: right sheath: r= 0.190 (p= 0.499); left sheath: r= 0.024 (p= 0.932). Concordance coefficient: right sheath (53.3%; 95% CI: 52.3%-54.3%), left sheath (46.7%; 95% CI: 45.7%-47.7%).
Conclusions: There is a weak correlation and moderate agreement between the traditional measurements and with the CLOSED protocol of the diameter of the optic nerve among the doctors of the Intensive Care Unit of the General Teaching Hospital of Ambato. This shows the need to reinforce continuous training activities and the learning curve with these doctors.

By Kerly Yuliana Apolo Loayza

2023-03-06 Original
Risk behaviors and knowledge of the human papillomavirus (HPV)

Introduction: education about sexually transmitted diseases can be an effective primary prevention strategy against HPV infection and cervical cancer.
Objective: to analyse risk behaviours and levels of knowledge about human papillomavirus among seventh-grade students.
Methods: the study used a quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional, correlational, non-experimental, descriptive design to examine the relationship between risk behaviours and knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV).
Results: Male participants reported less knowledge and experience of HPV. Second, knowledge level was an important predictor of risk, with participants answering less than half of the HPV knowledge questions correctly.
Conclusions: the results provide a potential knowledge base for future research on sexually vulnerable populations and represent a significant contribution to the nursing profession: despite knowledge of HPV and awareness of condom use as a preventive measure, university students continue to engage in risky sexual behaviour.

By Lissette Dayana Salazar Llerena, Verónica del Pilar Cantuñi Carpio

2023-03-09 Original
The role of Emotional and Spiritual Intelligence in health and educational intervention

Introduction: the study of Emotional and Spiritual Intelligence in educational and health contexts is beginning to be given great importance, due to the repercussion that these theoretical constructs have on human behavior and, consequently, on the exercise of the professional functions of students, teachers and health professionals.
Objective: to find the relationship between emotional intelligence and spirituality and how those concepts can condition the behavior of students and health professionals.
Methods: a narrative review of original articles, performing a systematic search through the EBSCHOHot (APA Pscycinfo), ERIC, MEDLINE, PubMed and SCOPUS database. The descriptors used: "Emotional Intelligence" AND "Spiritual*" AND "Correlation*.
Results: this review included 7 articles, 6 of which are original and 1 is a critical review, referring to research carried out in educational and health contexts and conducted mainly in Eastern countries. The relationship between the constructs of Emotional and Spiritual Intelligence and the importance that these competencies have on human behavior is demonstrated.
Conclusions: it is pertinent to carry out more studies that relate these two variables, as well as the need to introduce and work on these concepts in educational and health intervention contexts, with the aim of improving the competencies of students and professionals. Likewise, it is important to avoid confusing the concepts of spirituality and religiosity which, although associated, have different meanings and practical implications.

By Francisco Javier Vidal Barrantes

2023-03-25 Original
Factors causing self-medication in nursing students

Introduction: Self-medication is the use of medications on one's own initiative to alleviate or cure some ailment, this practice may have positive points in favor of the economy and demand of health centers worldwide, however, the negative consequences are more relevant, such as future antibiotic resistance, misdiagnosis or treatment and combinations of drugs that can cause adverse reactions.
Objective: To identify the factors that cause self-medication in nursing students of the Technical University of Ambato.
Methods: A quantitative research with a non-experimental, cross-sectional design was carried out. A total of 183 nursing students from the fifth, sixth and seventh semesters of the Technical University of Ambato participated in the study. A 23-item questionnaire with a validity of 97.2% and reliability of 86.3% was applied.
Results: 97.3% prevalence of low frequency self-medication (80.9%) was reported, where the main reason for self-medication was the consideration of mild symptoms with 82% and the most commonly used drugs were analgesics with 94.5%.
Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of self-medication in nursing students, which leads to take informative measures to avoid or decrease this percentage in students and population in the future.

By Francis Paul Zambrano Barriga, Nadihezka Amanda Cusme Torres

2023-03-18 Original
Specific prostate antigen in adults of the urban parishes of Cuenca - Ecuador

The objective of this research was to determine the values of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the blood serum of 1100 adults aged 40 to 80 who reside in the urban parishes of the city of Cuenca during 2018. The micro ELISA technique was used to determine PSA values, a glycoprotein secreted by the prostatic epithelium that allows sperm liquefaction and spermatozoa mobility. The results revealed that 8% of patients had values higher than 4 ng/ml, considered as the maximum limit of normality and present in prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and prostate cancer. 50% of positive cases belonged to the age group of 70 to 80 years, finding statistical significance (p<0.05) when related to variables such as age, family history, and sexual activity, highlighting the importance of establishing periodic control of this tumor marker for early detection.

By Reina María Macero Méndez, José Antonio Cabrera Vicuña

2023-04-18 Original
The triple helix model linked to knowledge transfer and economic progress from universities

The strategic actions that are being developed from the Ecuadorian universities, are heading towards the linking of innovative factors under an interrelated scheme known as Triple Helix, whose intention is framed in connecting entrepreneurship, using knowledge and society as a platform, generating a model sustainable development between university-state-business. The objective of this research is to show the relationship between university-company-state with entrepreneurial research through the triple helix functional model, with a view to innovative potentializing that serves as a boost to socioeconomic progress. The research approach is qualitative at a descriptive level, using a hermeneutical review focused on entrepreneurship studies, business and university alliances, government plans and the triple helix theory. The results indicate that scientific research based on the triple helix method should be strengthened, the main obstacles being lack of communication, business disinterest and distorted state policies. The Ecuadorian universities UEM, UTB and UEB must make concerted efforts so that the investigations are directed towards the true social needs of each area. The conclusions indicate that the links of the triple helix model lead to socioeconomic strengthening through the development of research and scientific projects, without neglecting technological advances.

By Diego Bonilla-Jurado, Cesar Guevara, Ivanna Karina Sánchez Montero, Sarah Jacqueline Iza Pazmiño, Manuel Enrique Chenet Zuta

2023-03-21 Original
Scientific production on the use of ICT as a tool for social inclusion for deaf people: a bibliometric analysis

Introduction: This article presents a bibliometric analysis on the scientific production related to the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) as a tool for the social inclusion of deaf people.
Objective: The objective of this study is to identify the trends and patterns of scientific production in this field of research, as well as to determine the most relevant countries, authors and publication sources.
Methods: A systematic search was carried out in Scopus, using the keyword "deaf" combined with "worker" in the area of computing. 140 scientific publications that met the inclusion criteria were selected.
Results: The results of the bibliometric analysis show a significant increase in the number of publications related to the use of ICT as a tool for social inclusion for deaf people from the year 2008. In addition, six countries responsible for 56% of the production were identified. science: United States, India, United Kingdom, Brazil, Japan and Spain. The most published author is Bigham Jeffrey P., affiliated with Carnegie Mellon University. The universities with the highest affiliation in the publications are Carnegie Mellon and Rochester Institute of Technology.
Conclusions: This bibliometric analysis reveals a growing interest in the use of ICT as a tool for social inclusion for deaf people, and provides valuable information on the most relevant countries, authors and publication sources in the study area. The results suggest the need to continue research in this area and promote international collaboration to advance the social inclusion of deaf people.

By Matilde Bolaño García, Nixon Duarte Acosta, Keguin González Castro

2023-03-17 Original
Level of Knowledge of Nursing Students on Triage in the Emergency Area

Introduction: Triage is a tool used by healthcare professionals that allows them to classify the degree of urgency according to the symptoms present, in order to reduce patient demand in the emergency area and ensure effective and adequate care. Therefore, it is necessary for healthcare personnel to have scientific fundamentals prior to handling this area.
Objective: To analyze the level of knowledge of nursing students on Triage in the Emergency area.
Methods: This research is a cross-sectional study, with a quantitative approach; and, it is based on data collection using the Scale of Knowledge Level in Triage Management in Nursing Personnel (NICMA-TRIPE), in which 120 nursing students from the Technical University of Ambato participated.
Results: Among the findings during the research, we have that 38% of the students totally agree, meaning they significantly know the definition of triage, 24% agree, 16% neither agree nor disagree, 14% disagree, and 9% totally disagree.
Conclusions: Nursing students at the Technical University of Ambato have adequate knowledge about the triage process in the emergency service, which contributes to providing efficient care to the patient in terms of demand and clinical needs of the healthcare facility.

By Martha Estefanía Salguero Pérez, Miriam Ivonne Fernandez Nieto

2023-04-30 Original
Nipah virus: Analysis of the scientific production in Open Access on the Web of Science, 2000 – 2020

Introduction: the Nipah virus causes severe disease with high mortality rates in humans. Since its discovery, it has been studied for its pandemic potential and lethality.
Objective: analyze the scientific production on the Nipah virus, to identify its trend at an international level.
Method: a descriptive, longitudinal and retrospective study of the scientific production related to the Nipah virus published in open access on the Web of Science Core Collection between 2000 and 2020 was carried out. The information search used the equation "Nipah NOT Hendra", and of each record Information regarding the year of publication, authors with their institutional affiliation, type of publication and title of the journal (for articles), country of origin of the authors was extracted. VOSviewer 1.6.17 was used to map the collaboration networks between authors and countries, as well as the co-citation network and the concurrency of keywords.
Results: 443 documents were recovered, where 79.23% are articles and 99.79% were published in English. The most productive sources are: Journal of Virology and Emerging Infections Diseases. A total of 1.724 authors were identified, observing a trend towards an increase in scientific production on the Nipah virus in the period analyzed, which allows the construction of theoretical frameworks that support strategies on this virus.
Conclusions: the analysis carried out responds to the WHO priority on monitoring this pathogen, classified as one of those with the greatest potential to generate pandemic outbreaks and high morbidity and mortality.

By Yudayly Stable-Rodríguez, Manuel Osvaldo Machado Rivero, Lee Yang Díaz-Chieng

2023-03-12 Original
Level of academic satisfaction of rotating interns in the nursing career

Introduction: Academic satisfaction is an aspect that is perceived by students differently, depending on their perspective, the same which can be positive or negative. Satisfaction lies in the enjoyment and well-being they experience when they receive the different services offered by the University.
Objective: To evaluate the level of academic satisfaction of rotating interns of the Nursing career at the Technical University of Ambato (UTA). Methods: The present study has a quantitative, descriptive, non-experimental approach with a sample of 139 rotating interns of the Nursing career. Data collection was done through a physical survey for the analysis of the collected data.
Results: The study corresponds to 23 male interns and 116 female interns. The level of academic satisfaction is "satisfied" this is moderately acceptable, corresponds to 59% of the students surveyed, followed by 57% of the students responding to the items Teaching Team and Teaching-Learning Method; and Career Infrastructure.
Conclusions: At the end of this research it can be evidenced that a large percentage of students are satisfied with the academic level and with the infrastructure and services offered by the nursing career. Academic satisfaction makes it possible to determine both the benefits and the shortcomings of the institution, and the measures that should be taken to improve it.

By Erika Michelle Guangasi Pinto, Miriam Ivonne Fernández Nieto

2023-04-02 Original
Psychometric Properties and Measurement Invariance of The Fear of Missing Out Scale (FoMOs) In Chilean University Students

Introduction: Social networks can harm university students' mental health; therefore, it is urgent to have valid instruments to measure new phenomena such as FoMO.
Objective: This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the Fear of Missing Out Scale (FoMOs) in a sample of Chilean university students.
Methods: Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were carried out and estimated using the Weighted Leasts Square Means and Variance (WLSMV).
Results: The FoMOs evaluation had an internal consistency of 0.863 (Cronbach's Alpha). The con-firmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed two factors and good indicators: CFI = 0.991, TLI = 0.987, and an RMSEA of 0.054.
Conclusion: The FoMOs is a good instrument for measuring the fear of missing out in the Chilean University population.

By Jonathan Martínez-Libano, Javier Torres-Vallejos, Nicol González Campusano, Javiera Pereira Castillo, Hugo Simkin, Juan Carlos Oyanedel, María-Mercedes Yeomans

2023-04-26 Original
Relationship of static and dynamic inspiratory muscle strength

Background: The non-invasive evaluation of the inspiratory muscles strength makes it possible to detect their weakness globally. The use of digital or aneroid manometers to determine the inspiratory force can be taken by a static technique, known as pymometry, obtaining the maximum inspiratory pressure. However, equipment such as PowerBreathe is also used to obtain the strength index, which is considered a dynamic technique.
Methods: The present work is a cross-sectional cohort study, focused on analyzing the inspiratory muscle force in a static and dynamic way in healthy subjects, using a non-clinical digital manometer Ht - 18909 compared with a PowerBreathe equipment. The study was conducted in 23 healthy volunteer patients with a mean age of 19 years.
Results: Inspiratory force measurements for both instruments reached a mean of 57.5 cmH2O and 55.3 cmH2O (SD 16.38 - 14.91) when taken with manometry and PowerBreathe equipment respectively, the correlation by calculating of the ICC with a reliability of 95%, was 0.87, having a high level of agreement or similarity between the measures.
Conclusions: It was concluded that there are no significant differences when measuring the inspiratory force when using both devices that estimate the force statically and dynamically.

By Robinson Adrián Rumiguano Jiménez, Stalin Javier Caiza Lema, Katherine Pamela Valencia Pasquel, Geovanna Maribel Herrera Herrera, Victoria Estefania Espin Pastor, María Gabriela Romero Rodríguez

2023-03-18 Original
Enviromental health, Environmental management, eco-efficiency and its relationship with the optimization of solid waste

This research aimed to determine the relationship between environmental management, eco-efficiency of municipal workers, and the optimization of solid waste. A quantitative applied study was conducted, using a non-experimental design with a causal correlational scope and a cross-sectional approach. The population consisted of 340 collaborators from the solid waste management sub-department of a municipality in Lima, using a convenience probabilistic sample of 191 collaborators. The information for this study was obtained through three instruments, from which acceptable reliability levels were obtained through the Cronbach's alpha statistical process. The results of this research confirmed the proposed hypotheses, showing that environmental management and the eco-efficiency of workers significantly influence the optimization of solid waste, obtaining a zero-order partial correlation with a value of 0.763 and p-value=0.000. These results were given through the indicators of the logistic regression used with the Nagelkerke pseudo R-squared model (0.861), which explains the level of influence of the variables on the optimization of solid waste.

By Daniela Milagros Anticona Valderrama, Jose Jeremias Caballero Cantu, Edith Delia Chavez Ramirez, Ana Beatriz Rivas Moreano, Lucila Rojas Delgado

2023-03-19 Original
Acute acalculous cholecystitis as a manifestation of Canine Leptospirosis

Introduction: Leptospirosis is considered the most widespread zoonosis in the world. It is typically transmitted through direct contact of the skin and mucous membranes with urine, blood, and other organic fluids contaminated by infected animals.
Aim: To present relevant data on dogs with acalculous cholecystitis as a relevant symptom in leptospirosis.
Methods: This study had a retrospective design. The data was collected from various private veterinary clinics in Asunción, Paraguay during the period from August 2022 to January 2023.
Results: The age range of the dogs analyzed ranged from 1 to 7 years. 4/6 were males, being able to adjudicate the predominance by sniffing habits and territorial behavior, which makes it more predisposing. The leukocyte count ranged from 7,900 to 16,200 cells/μl. Leukocytosis is the increase in the number of cells of the white blood series, indicating that there is an intense activity of the defenses against an infection of bacterial origin. In cases of acute leptospirosis, leukocytosis usually occurs in moderate or severe cases. However, in most of the cases that are oligosymptomatic or pictures similar to viral processes, the leukocytes usually have counts within normal limits; Likewise, it is common to see leukopenia in seriously ill patients or in patients with associated comorbidity.
Conclusions: It is important, in canine patients with non-specific symptoms accompanied by AAC symptoms, to include leptospirosis as a differential diagnosis, to implement adequate antibiotic treatment and avoid unnecessary surgical procedures.

By Maria Jose Tintel, Jorge Rivas, Romina Marini

2023-03-23 Original
Comparison of Machine Learning Algorithms for Predicting Patients with Suspected COVID-19

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak has infected millions of people, causing a high death rate worldwide. Patients suspected of having COVID-19 are transferred to different health facilities, which has caused a saturation in care, for which it is necessary to have a prediction model to classify patients at high risk of clinical deterioration. The objective of the research was to compare classification algorithms based on automatic learning machines, for the prediction of clinical diagnosis in patients with COVID-19. 1000 records of patients with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection who were admitted by the emergency service in health establishments in Peru were collected. After pre-processing the data and engineering the attributes, a sample of 700 records was determined. Models were designed and algorithms were compared: Logistic Regression, Support Vector Machine, Nearest Neighbors, Decision Tree, Random Forest, and Navie Bayes. The evaluation of the results of each algorithm was carried out using Accuracy, precision, sensitivity and Chohen's Kappa to know the degree of agreement between the prediction by the learning machine and the results of reality, that is, to what extent both results agree in their measurement. The algorithm that presented the best results was the Support Vector Machine and Random Forest, which predicted the patients with an accuracy of 97%, and Cohen's Kappa of 0.95, with figures higher than the other models evaluated.

By Daniel Andrade-Girón, Edgardo Carreño-Cisneros, Cecilia Mejía-Dominguez, William Marín-Rodriguez, Henry Villarreal-Torres

2023-04-17 Original
Trait Self-Esteem and Emotional Intelligence in the In-Person Return of Nursing Students

Introduction: Psycho-emotional risks in nursing students are a persistent problem over time, describing the protective factors in this population is an increasingly important need.
Objective: To describe the relationship of Self-esteem with Trait Emotional Intelligence in the return of post-confinement face-to-face academic activities in Nursing students at a public university in Chile.
Methods: Quantitative, correlational, cross-sectional, non-experimental study. The TEIQue-SF Emotional Intelligence questionnaire and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale were applied; both questionnaires cross-culturally adapted for use in the target population; the final sample was 213 nursing students from 1st to 5th year.
Results: There was a prevalence of 68.1% with low self-esteem, likewise, in trait Emotional Intelligence, 37% were found in the very high percentile. In addition, a positive weak correlation was associated between the total self-esteem and the emotionality factor (r=.268; p<.000). Likewise, a strong negative correlation was observed between total self-esteem and the trait Emotional Intelligence Well-being factor (r=-.705; p<.000).
Conclusions: There is a psycho-emotional risk associated with the reported low self-esteem and biosociodemographic factors. Trait emotional intelligence is considered a protective factor and influences self-esteem. Universities and academic teachers should be a source of training in emotional management, trying to develop this construct as an important protective factor in this student body at risk.

By Rodrigo-Alejandro Ardiles-Irarrázabal, Pablo Pérez-Díaz, Miguel Valencia-Contrera, Rosella Santoro Ageno

2023-03-23 Original
Teacher training, work, profession in the pandemic and post-pandemic context

Learning and the challenges of the teaching job are not only framed within the teaching profession, but also respond to complex needs that arise from students in their development contexts. As new educational, political and economic scenarios emerge, the challenges for teachers are diverse because they are responsible for responding to the community and society as a whole. The current scenarios are very different from the initial ones of the school, which to this day pursue the purpose of seeking answers. The aim of the work was to identify what students learn and at the same time what are the challenges of the work, profession and teacher training after the pandemic. The teacher is a subject that society demands a particular profile and a degree of responsibility that does not happen with other professions, since he/she has a very complex task that requires many elements. It is necessary in this context to train teachers in a curriculum that develops both deep knowledge of content areas and effective pedagogical understanding, including digital technologies in a cross-cutting manner, with clear learning objectives that include knowledge, skills and attitudes. The study also focuses on the context of COVID-19, being necessary to introduce technologies in a transversal way in initial and continuous teacher training throughout the educational system, but also computational thinking.

By Idana Beroska Rincon Soto, William Joel Marín-Rodriguez, Luis Alberto Baldeos-Ardían, Flor de María Líoo-Jordán, Dalila Irene Villanueva-Cadenas, Betty Janeth Soledispa-Cañarte, Pilar Asunción Soledispa-Cañarte

2023-03-24 Original
Predictive value of the CONUT scale in the early detection of nutritional risk and its relationship with mortality in critically ill patients

Introduction: Hospital malnutrition is a global health problem, and its prevalence has been estimated between 30–60%. Its early identification constitutes a pillar of the management and treatment of critically ill patients. Its usefulness has been shown both to improve the survival of these patients, as well as to reduce complications related to it, and reduce costs.
Objectives: apply the CONUT scale to assess nutritional risk and as a predictor of mortality. Relate it with causes of admission, stay in the ICU, time on mechanical ventilation, and the state at discharge from the ICU and determine the sensitivity and specificity of the CONUT scale as a predictor of mortality and its comparison with the APACHE II scale.
Methods: it was carried out in the ICU of the "Miguel Enríquez" Hospital for a period of 2 years. The variables applied were: age, sex, ICU stay, origin services, need for mechanical ventilation, discharge status, nutritional status classification according to CONUT and APACHE II.
Results: There was a predominance of males, the average stay was between 1-6 days, and mortality was low. More than 90% of the patients were malnourished, the diagnosis at admission and the use of mechanical ventilation, and no association with mortality was demonstrated.
Conclusions: An association between nutritional status and ICU stay was demonstrated. According to the ROC curve, it was shown that the CONUT has a high sensitivity to predict nutritional risk and its relationship with mortality, compared to the APACHE scale it was low.

By Jhossmar Cristians Auza-Santivañez, Jorge Soneira Perez, Yanin Diaz Lara, David Orlando León, Nayra Condori-Villca, Juan Pablo Alvarez Loaces

2023-05-14 Original
Social determinants of health that influence in the incidence/prevalence of cardiovascular disease

Introduction: Germany, the United States and Brazil are the countries with the highest mortality rates due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). In Chile, they represent the leading cause of death in adults. There are structural and intermediate determinants that interfere in the incidence and prevalence of CVD.
Objective: To describe the influence of social determinants of health (SDH) on the incidence and prevalence of CVD in adults. Methods: This was a systematic review. The question was elaborated according to the PICO acronym. The PubMed and Virtual Health Library (VHL) databases were used. For PubMed, the search was constructed using the descriptors MeSH, Adult, Cardiovascular Disease, Social Determinants of Health. For VHL, by means of DeCS, Cardiovascular Disease, Social Determinants of Health, Adult in Spanish, English and Portuguese. For both searches, in combination with keywords and Boolean operators AND and OR. All references were imported into EndNote. The methodological quality of the studies was evaluated according to JBI Critical Appraisal tools. Deductive thematic analysis of the data was performed.
Results: A total of 834 articles were identified and 31 included. The structural determinants identified were race, sex, socioeconomic level and educational level. The intermediate determinants identified were rurality, comorbidities, mental health factors and the presence of unhealthy habits.
Conclusions: Low socioeconomic and educational level were the structural DSS identified. Poor mental health and the presence of unhealthy habits were intermediate DSS that influenced the incidence and prevalence of CVD.

By Arturo Flores, Lisselotte Saelzer, Denisse Cartagena-Ramos

2023-04-07 Original
Knowledge and attitudes of adolescents about sexually transmitted diseases

Introduction: Sexually transmitted diseases are communicable pathologies caused by microorganisms such as viruses, fungi and bacteria, which are acquired through sexual or non-sexual contact.
Objective: To determine the knowledge and attitudes of adolescents towards sexually transmitted diseases.
Methods: A quantitative, non-experimental, cross-sectional cohort study was carried out with a population made up of 102 leveling students of the Nursing Career. Using two validated instruments, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.88 and 0.66, the first consists of 24 multiple-choice questions that evaluate five components: general knowledge of HIV, knowledge of condoms as a protective method, knowledge of HIV transmission routes HIV prevention and knowledge about other sexually transmitted diseases and the second consisted of 10 questions; 8 open and 2 closed to know their attitudes. Results: The participants comprised an age between 15 to 19 years; with a predominance of the female gender in 82.4%, there are adolescents who have not started their sexual activity with 43.1%. In addition, this research aims to know the knowledge, so the results of the evaluation indicate that most adolescents have an average knowledge (15 points) on this topic. Conclusion: It can be concluded that adolescents have an average knowledge regarding STIs, which is why it is essential to promote health promotion and disease prevention as a fundamental nursing strategy.

By Christian Alexander Chicaiza Bautista, Verónica del Pilar Cantuñi Carpio

2023-05-28 Original
Management methods and dysfunctional grief in the face of COVID-19

Introduction: Grief is a life crisis that people go through when a loved one dies, from the perspective of the intermediate theory of Gaskill, Lermann and Hainsworth, supported the Dysfunctional Grief Theory, which argues that it is necessary to propose management methods to face the duel that leads the individual to reestablish their emotional stability.
Objective: To understand the dysfunctional mourning of the relatives of patients who died of COVID-19, according to the theory of Gaskill, Lermann and Hainsworth.
Methods: The methodological theoretical approach was the social phenomenology of Alfred Schütz. The scenario, the main hospitals of the city of Lima. The sample, made up of 14 family members, selected by saturation of speeches, using the phenomenological interview as a data collection technique, an interview guide as an instrument and thematic analysis was used for data analysis.
Results: Phenomenological analysis was used with ideographic and nomothetic analysis, which gave rise to the following categories: Category I: Manifesting experiences lived in the face of the loss of their loved one due to COVID-19. Category II: Coping with the grieving process when a loved one dies unexpectedly from COVID-19. Category III: Feeling resignation at the loss of your loved one.
Conclusions: The categories found allow us to understand the dysfunctional grief experienced by family members during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, ranging from misunderstanding to acceptance of the loss of a loved one in an untimely manner due to this disease that has harmed humanity. There is enough conceptual and theoretical framework on grief to increase the preparation of health and nursing personnel.

By Patricia del Rocio Chávarry-Ysla, Patricia Noemi Piscoya Angeles, Carlos Germán Castagnola-Sánchez, Yohana Milagros Oliva-Yarlaqué, Nil Montalvo Chacón, Pablo Andrés Dubo Araya, Maggie Campillay Campillay

2023-05-08 Original
Use of tetanalgesia for pain assessment

Vaccination is considered the most significant advance in the field of public health. However, it is well known that the process can be painful and generate an unpleasant sensation, leading to vaccine reluctance, especially in children. To increase vaccine acceptance, various non-pharmacological analgesic methods have been developed. One such method is tetanalgesia, which involves providing breastfeeding during vaccination. In the present study, 51 children from the San Miguelito population were investigated, who attended to comply with the current vaccination schedule. To assess the pain level experienced by infants undergoing this method, the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) were used. Subsequently, the SPSS application was used to tabulate the data and create graphs to facilitate the understanding of the results. The study's findings were favorable for the research, showing that the use of tetanalgesia had an effect on the majority of the evaluated children. On the NIPS scale, 58.8% of infants presented moderate pain, while on the VAS scale, 51% experienced moderate to intense pain. These results demonstrate that the tetanalgesia method is valid for certain age groups.

By Patricia Villacreces Espinoza, Lourdes Lozada Lara

2023-05-08 Original
Diagnosis of the implementation of nursing care management for closed healthcare in Chile

Introduction: The social role of nurses in 1997 is defined, nursing care management being established via the general administrative regulation Nº 19. The implementation of assistant directorships for nursing care management becomes relevant in the results for both the patients and the nursing team.
Goal: Describe the degree of implementation of the general administrative regulation Nº 19 for close care at Chile's medium-and-high-complexity public health establishments.
Methods: A quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study was developed. With a convenience-intended sample of 56 centers, using an instrument to gather evidence of characteristics of Regulation Nº 19.
Results: 75.0% have an Assistant Directorship for Care Management and 3.57% do not have any. High-complexity hospitals averaged 6.83 characteristics and medium complexity averaged 6.69 characteristics. The characteristics with the highest degree of fulfillment were those related to powers to grant safe care, the definition of job profiles corresponding to the structure, policies on communication with other offices, and having a set of care indicators for decision-making.
Conclusion: There is a disparity in implementation, a National Nursing Directorship dependent on the Ministry of Health with a supervising role and generating standardized policies, protocols, and guidelines to support the implementation is required to achieve care with a sense of social and universal justice.

By Nicolás Ramírez Aguilera, Roberto García Jara, Felipe Machuca-Contreras

2023-05-08 Original
Educational strategies in the promotion of breastfeeding in new mothers

Background: Breastfeeding plays an essential and irreplaceable role in child nutrition, which is why interventions that promote and protect this practice are currently being sought.
Objective: to raise the level of knowledge and promotion of breastfeeding in new mothers through educational strategies.
Methods: An applied research, educational intervention type, quasi-experimental, descriptive, cross-sectional was carried out during the months of February and March 2023 with a group of 45 mothers. As collection instruments, a questionnaire on knowledge about breastfeeding was used, which through 14 questions classifies knowledge as good, regular and bad.
Results: Before the educational intervention, the level of general knowledge of the first-time mothers was regular in 60%, the level of knowledge regarding the importance of breastfeeding was adequate in 57.77% and regarding breastfeeding techniques it was of 45.92%. After the intervention, the level of general knowledge was good at 100%, regarding the importance of breastfeeding the level of knowledge reached was 93% and regarding breastfeeding techniques, 90.93%.
Conclusions: The educational strategies for the promotion of breastfeeding applied in the present study were effective, because the mothers went from a regular level of knowledge to a good one, which is significant and beneficial for the effective feeding of the newborn.

By Joselyn Estefania Masapanta Andrade, Martha Lorena Alvear Arévalo

2023-04-23 Original
Inequality in Access to Healthcare: A Latin American Perspective

Introduction: Inequality in access to healthcare is a significant issue globally, with disparities in access to health services, health outcomes, and health-related behaviors. Latin America is known for its income and wealth inequality, and perceptions of inequality in health services during the COVID-19 pandemic are crucial to consider in formulating public policies in this sector.
Objective: This study aims to determine the factors associated with the perception of inequality and access to health services in Latin America in 2020.
Methods: The study uses data from the 2020 Latinobarómetro and focuses on socio-demographic, perception, and access to health services factors. Three supervised learning algorithms were used: logit regression with Lasso regularization algorithm, decision tree, and random forests.
Results: The study found that the factors associated with the perception of inequality and access to health services in Latin America in 2020 include age, education, income, health insurance, and type of healthcare facility used.
Conclusions: The study provides valuable insights into the perception of inequality associated with access to health systems in Latin America, one of the world's most unequal regions. Public policies addressing this issue would positively influence Latin Americans' objective and subjective quality of life. However, there is a need for more consensus on appropriate indicators for measuring access to health, and more studies analyzing access to health services during the pandemic and users' perception are necessary.

By Carolina Henao, Jenny Paola Lis-Gutiérrez, Melissa Lis-Gutiérrez

2023-05-01 Original
Prevalence and associated factors with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in obstetric risk ages. Vicente Corral Moscoso Hospital, Cuenca 2019

Introduction: hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are one of the main causes of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide.
Objective: To determine the prevalence and associated factors to hypertensive disorders in pregnancy at risk ages, at Vicente Corral Moscoso Hospital in 2019.
Materials and methods: a cross-sectional analytical study was carried out. 249 medical records from “Intranet” system for hospitalization, selected by simple random sampling, were included. For data analysis, SPSS v.22 was used. The factor`s association was made with odds ratio with its confidence interval of 95%; the hypothesis was accepted with a value of p < 0.05 of the Chi square.
Results: 17.7% patients presented hypertensive disorders at risk reproductive age, of which 12.4% had preeclampsia. The factors that showed a statistically significant relationship with hypertensive disorders were overweight-obesity (OR 2.1; 95% CI: 1.04-4.23, p: 0,03); chronic hypertension (OR: 20.4; 95% CI: 2.22-187.33; p > 0.001) and a history of hypertensive disorder in previous pregnancies (OR: 4.2; 95 % CI: 1.23 -14.82; P: 0.001).
Conclusion: more than one eighth of patients with obstetric risk ages presented hypertensive disorders in pregnancy; preeclampsia was the most frequent. Overweight and obesity, history of hypertensive disorder prior to pregnancy and chronic hypertension were statistically significant factors.

By Thalía Alejandra Álvarez Peralta, Jeanneth Tapia Cardenas, Zoila Katherine Salazar Torres

2023-04-22 Original
Incidence of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus at the health post of the Parroquia Tres Cerritos in adults. Period august 2019 – august 2022

Background: Diabetes is a major global health problem, with an estimated 537 million adults living with diabetes in 2021, with a projected increase to 783 million by 2045 (1).
Aim: To determine the incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in adults at the Tres Cerritos Parish Health Post. Period August 2019 – August 2022.
Methods: It is an observational cross-sectional study, with a sample of 46 adults of both sexes, for the collection of sociodemographic information on the population with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the PRAS (HEALTH CARE RECORD PLATFORM) was used. For the statistical analysis, the Epi Info program and Excel were used.
Results: Based on the PRAS, it was determined that the patients treated at the Tres Cerritos Health Post diagnosed by the doctor with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, had an incidence of 17 x 1000 Inhabitants, that is, 0.17% over a period of 4 years. in a significant number they belong to the female sex, more frequently they are those who fluctuate between 24 to 54 years of age, 41.30% of the total of the patients investigated presented Diabetes Mellitus type 2 as the only diagnosis, 19.56% Diabetes Mellitus type 2 + Obesity and 10.87% Diabetes Mellitus type 2 + Arterial Hypertension; These last two risk factors being the most important in the evolution of this pathology.

By Axel Gandhi Urgiles Ruiz, Wilson Adrian Huailas Suquilanda, Hermel Medardo Espinoza Espinoza, Zoila Katherine Salazar Torres

2023-05-20 Original
Health and Inclusive Higher Education: Evaluation of the Impact of Policies and Programs for People with Disabilities in Ecuador

This study explored the inclusion of students with disabilities in higher education, focusing on policies, practices, and challenges within a specific faculty. The research question analyzed barriers and strategies for inclusion. A mixed methods approach was adopted, combining quantitative and qualitative analysis of data collected through surveys, interviews, focus groups, and document review, with the participation of students with disabilities, faculty, and administrative staff. The findings demonstrated notable progress in inclusion, reflected in concrete policies and practices, such as scholarship programs, reasonable accommodations and assistive technologies. However, challenges persist in the training and sensitization of faculty and administrative staff, as well as in the removal of physical and architectural barriers. Analysis of the results showed a general trend towards greater inclusion in higher education, but inequalities still exist in access, participation and academic success for these students. A holistic and collaborative approach is needed to foster an inclusive culture that values and respects diversity and individual differences. This study provides valuable data for the continuous improvement of policies and practices in the field of inclusion of students with disabilities in higher education, underscoring the importance of treating inclusion as a dynamic and ever-changing process that demands the commitment and collaboration of the entire educational community. Areas for improvement and ongoing challenges were identified, emphasizing the need to continue working on specific strategies and policies to ensure equal opportunities and foster an inclusive culture that benefits all students, regardless of their individual characteristics and needs.

By Brenda Miroslava Carrión Ramírez, Héctor Manuel Córdova Medina, Maria Viviana Murillo Párraga, Guillermo Segundo Del Campo Saltos

2023-07-19 Original
Bibliometric analysis on neuroscience, artificial intelligence and robotics studies: emphasis on disruptive technologies in education

This study examined the scientific literature related to the impact of disruptive technologies in education, with emphasis on neuroscience, artificial intelligence and robotics applied to student learning. Bibliometric tools were used to identify the most cited publications, top journals and influential authors. The findings evidenced a steady growth in scientific production on the topic since 2010, with an increasing focus on distance education, personalized learning, and teacher training. The most prominent journals included the Journal of Educational Technology, International Journal of Robotics in Education, Frontiers in Psychology, and Computers & Education. Recurring themes covered the impact of artificial intelligence on education, the use of robotics in the classroom, and the incorporation of educational technologies into the curriculum. As for the literature in Spanish, considerable scientific production was observed, with journals such as Educación a Distancia, Investigación en Educación and Revista de Educación standing out. The most reiterated themes in this literature dealt with the use of virtual environments in distance learning, the impact of ICTs in education and the design of MOOCs in higher education. This study highlighted a growing concern for the use of disruptive technologies in education, as well as the need to explore their possibilities and limitations. It confirmed a remarkable increase in the scientific literature on the subject in the last decade, focusing on artificial intelligence, robotics and neuroscience applied to education. In addition, a significant scientific production in Spanish was identified, addressing topics on the impact of ICT in education and emerging techno-pedagogical educational models in the online modality.

By Guillermo Del Campo Saltos, Wellington Villlota Oyarvide, Edison Andrade Sánchez, Yilena Montero Reyes

2023-06-01 Original
Experiences of nursing staff in the prevention of infections associated with health care (IASS) in Neonatology

Introduction: Infections Associated with Health Care (IASS) worldwide is considered one of the main problems for the health system, directly affecting patient safety and the quality of service provision. Objective: To analyze the experiences of nursing staff in the prevention of Health Care Associated Infections (IASS) in Neonatology
Methods: This study is the result of a qualitative, purposeful investigation with a phenomenological approach, in a sample of 10 nurses. who work in the Neonatology area, the information collection technique was through a semi-structured interview.
Results: The results show that the nursing staff that works in the Neonatology area is trained and knows the complications that can be contracted by not correctly applying the standards established by the service.
Conclusions: The activities carried out by the nursing staff were effective in avoiding to a large extent the occurrence of IASS cases in the service, which has been a gratifying experience.

By Edgar Bravo Paladines, Yadira Vanessa Chaluisa Ante

2023-05-16 Original
Circular economy: an innovative strategy to improve business sustainability

The main purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between the circular economy and the business sustainability of Empresa Agraria Azucarera Andahuasi, Sayán - 2022. Regarding the methodological part, the research focused on a quantitative approach, non-experimental transectional design and correlational level. The population presented 1200 workers, of which 291 workers participated. For data management, the survey was used and a questionnaire was designed, whose data showed with an asymptotic significance lower than 0.05 (p<0. 05) and a positive and moderate correlation of 0.541 that the circular economy has a direct relationship with the corporate sustainability of the Empresa Agraria Azucarera Andahuasi, Sayán - 2022, and that, therefore, in the company in question there is a regular circular economy, that is, there is a measured application of the actions regenerate, share, optimize, close the circle, digitize and replace that allow the transition to the circular economy, leading to the fact that there is a corporate sustainability, also regular.

By Rudy Espinoza-Gallardo, Flor de Maria Lioo-Jordan, Luis Alberto Baldeos-Ardian, Santiago Ernesto Ramos y Yovera, José Ausejo-Sánchez, Robert William Ocrospoma-Dueñas

2023-05-11 Original
Analysis of the implementation of the HyFlex model

The main purpose of the research was to determine the relationship between the HyFlex model and the teaching-learning process at the INEI 34 Educational Institution, located in the district of Chancay, Peru. In terms of methodology, a quantitative approach was used, with a non-experimental, transectional and correlational design. The study had a population of 90 teachers and a participating sample of 73 teachers. Likewise, the information was compiled by means of a survey, using a questionnaire designed on a Likert scale as an instrument. The hypotheses were tested using Spearman's Rho coefficient. It was demonstrated with a positive and moderate correlation of 0.640 and an asymptotic significance (0.001) lower than the significance level (0.05), that the HyFlex model has a direct relationship with the teaching-learning process in the INEI 34 Educational Institution, Chancay. This allowed inferring that the HyFlex model contributes to the implementation of content and educational commitment, using technology, to provide flexibility in the educational experience of the students. In other words, this model contributes to improve the teaching-learning process in a hybrid environment, in which students benefit from learning and in which the teacher is an agent of support for them.

By Rosario Caldas Jayo, Abrahán Cesar Neri Ayala, Algemiro Julio Muñoz Vilela, Edgar Tito Susanibar Ramirez, Sergio la Cruz Orbe

2023-05-10 Original
Design Thinking as a tool for fostering innovation and entrepreneurship

Through this study, we sought to determine whether design thinking significantly influences the generation of entrepreneurship of students in the fifth year of high school at the Guillermo E Billinghurst Educational Institution, Barranca - 2022. The sample consisted of 147 students, who answered a Likert scale survey with 18 items on design thinking, and 18 items on entrepreneurship. In addition, the research approach is quantitative, correlational and non-experimental - cross-sectional design. When applying Speraman's Rho statistic, an asymptotic significance (p=0) lower than the margin of error (p= 5%) is obtained, which allows affirming that design thinking significantly influences the generation of entrepreneurship of the students of the fifth year of high school of the Guillermo E Billinghurst Educational Institution, Barranca - 2022. Resulting in a positive and moderate correlation Spearman's Rho of 0.584. It is concluded that, in the educational institution studied many times it is possible to collect effective information, almost all problems are analyzed and defined, the ideation process is frequently used, the prototyping methodology is applied, and critical evaluations are made periodically; therefore, students perceive almost all the needs that can be met with the development of a venture, they acquire only certain knowledge to undertake, they almost always demonstrate business skills, develop positive values and attitudes, and analyze the environment frequently in order to adapt to the market.

By Elizabeth Lucia Obregón Espinoza, Abrahán Cesar Neri Ayala, Santiago Ernesto Ramos y Yovera, Félix Gil Caro Soto, Algemiro Julio Muñoz Vilela

2023-05-08 Original
Adverse effects post vaccination against COVID-19 in adolescents

Introduction: Immunization against Covid-19 can attract short or long-term effects, these can be mild (headache, pain at the puncture site), moderate (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, rash, fever (>38 °), pruritus, lymph node inflamation) or serious (facial paralysis, facial swelling, anaphylaxis, changes in heart rhythm, coagulation disorders, arterial hypertension, transverse myelitis, Guillan Barre syndrome), in the following study will be revealed the effects produced after the application of the vaccine against COVID-19 in adolescents.
Objective: To identify the adverse effects after the application of the third dose of the vaccine against COVID-19 in high school students of the Joaquín Lalama Educational Unit.
Method: Cross-sectional study, with a quantitative approach, of a cross-sectional non-experimental design with a descriptive correlational scope. The study population are adolescents from 14 to 19 years old, high school students of the Joaquín Lalama Educational Unit. For data collection, the questionnaire called COVID-19 Side effects and vaccination was used. For the processing and analysis of the information, the IBPM SPSS statistical platform will be used, as well as tables for its correct interpretation.
Results: After the analysis of the surveys applied to adolescents, it was found that there were no serious adverse effects in a large part of the population, but there were mild adverse effects, data similar to other studies carried out by other authors.

By Carmen Alicia Llerena, Erika Vanessa Aucanshala Shigla

2023-04-30 Original
Assessing Pediatric Care in Primary Health Settings: An Observational Study

Introduction: Pediatric primary care is essential for the early diagnosis and treatment of children's health problems. About the state of pediatric treatment in primary care facilities in Ecuador, there is little data, nonetheless.
Objective: To examine the current state of pediatric care in primary care settings and pinpoint areas for focused interventions to raise the standard, accessibility, and satisfaction of pediatric care in Quito, Ecuador.
Methods: An observational study was carried out utilizing a purposive sample of primary care institutions in Quito, Ecuador. Structured observations, provider interviews, parent/guardian interviews, and a review of medical records were used to gather the data.
Results: The study indicated that the facilities assessed provided pediatric care of varying quality, with 40% offering high-quality care, 35% offering moderate-quality care, and 25% offering low-quality care. Barriers to care included lengthy wait periods, a paucity of healthcare providers, and a lack of readily accessible specialty services. Parents and guardians reported a wide range of patient satisfaction: 40% expressed strong satisfaction, 35% expressed moderate satisfaction, and 25% expressed dissatisfaction.
Conclusions: In the Ecuadorian city of Quito, differences in the quality, availability, and satisfaction of pediatric care in primary care settings are highlighted. To overcome these difficulties and enhance the overall quality of pediatric care in the nation, targeted interventions and policy modifications are required.

By Héctor Agustín Rivadeneira Jurado, Alison Mariane Quispe Cedeño, María Celeste Paliz Gallegos, Elias Agustín Rivadeneira Jurado, Leslye Carolina Polo Mosquera, Eva Paola Guerra Godoy, Luz María Delgado Medina, Jaime Uxon Plasencia Castillo, María Auxiliadora Calero Zea

2023-07-01 Original
Knowledge of self-medication with antibiotics in adults

Introduction: In the quest to achieve wellness, people have resorted to self-care practices that can be harmful, the World Health Organization (WHO) defines self-medication as the freedom of individuals to consume over-the-counter medications without a prescription, for self-identified symptoms.
Objective: to determine the knowledge of self-medication with antibiotics in adults.
Methods: this study is quantitative and descriptive in scope. The sample consisted of 136 adults over 20 years of age who met the inclusion criteria. The questionnaire "Level of knowledge about self-medication with antibiotics in adults" was used for data collection, with validity and a Cronbach's alpha of 0.616 considered acceptable.
Results: 54.4% were female, 34.6% were housewives, 35.3% had secondary education, and 40.4% were between 31 and 50 years of age. The 64.0% of participants have self-medicated with antibiotics during the last year and the level of knowledge found is low with 44.1%.
Conclusion: the level of knowledge about self-medication with antibiotics is low. The main cause is lack of information and lack of knowledge added to the fact that they are easily accessible and are used to treat symptoms that do not require their use. It is important to focus on education and create regulatory policies for access and dispensing of these drugs to reduce their unnecessary use.

By Karla Rafaela Vásquez de La Bandera Zambrano, Carolina Arráiz de Fernández

2023-05-31 Original
Neurotechnologies and brain codes: the importance of legislation in deconstructive key

In the article, ethical conflicts arising from the application of neurotechnologies in the human body were analyzed. Although these external devices were presented as potential solutions to certain pathologies, it was observed that they could also be used in healthy individuals and interfere with brain activity, thereby generating the main concern around neuro-rights. However, to carry out this investigation, the focus was on the mind-brain relationship and moral dilemmas. Finally, a connection was established between neuroscience and Derridean and Nancyan thought. This allowed for an understanding, from an interpretative reading of the French philosopher's thought, of the interpretation of writing as brain codes and the urgency of legislating neuro-rights in the face of a potentially dangerous future.

By Francisco Novoa-Rojas, Andrea Báez-Alarcón

2023-05-17 Original
Nursing staff experiences for the prevention of ventilator associated pneumonia

Introduction: Pneumonia associated with mechanical ventilation (VAP), is one of the main conditions of intubated patients, in this sense nursing professionals play a fundamental role in its prevention, since they provide direct care to the patient in order to achieve early recovery and avoid complications that lengthen hospital stay or even cause death.
Methods: The present research was qualitative with a phenomenological approach, in which 7 nurses from the Intensive Care Unit participated, for the collection of information a semi-structured interview was used and the data were analyzed with the Atlas. Ti.
Results: The participants recognized its importance in the prevention of VAPM, in terms of care they demonstrated to have a broad knowledge, although not completely, they are also aware of the factors that hinder its prevention and the benefits achieved by preventing pathology.
Conclusions: There are several strengths that were identified in nursing professionals, when caring for these patients, however, the most remarkable was being proactive, since, although they have managed to provide good care, although not in its entirety, it has been by their own interest and based on self-education. Likewise, there are several limitations that they face, among which stand out the lack of resources, as well as the lack of knowledge to perform some care, so it is recommended to establish a training plan and protocolized training in the manipulation of the airway.

By Jessica Alexandra Castro Sánchez, William Andrés Jiménez Hurtado

2023-06-02 Original
Palliative care and death in hospitalized patients. A contribution from a nursing perspective

Introduction: In the hospital area the process of death is very common, that is why the palliative care provided by the nursing staff, is very important since it helps the patient to die in peace, as well as the family to face the grieving process.
Methods: This research is qualitative, descriptive, with a phenomenological approach, with the participation of 9 nursing professionals who worked for at least 5 years in the hospital area, and who had the experience of working with a patient in the palliative phase. Data collection was carried out by means of a semi-structured interview.
Results: Through the 6 categories and 2 subcategories, it was shown that nursing professionals provide accurate care in terms of interventions and management of a palliative patient; however, during the research, a deficiency was found in their academic training regarding death, as well as the importance of involvement with the family.
Conclusion: In palliative care nursing is a fundamental pillar, since they are the closest to the patients and one of the first to witness their death, for this reason it is recommended a mental preparation and not only knowledge from the beginning of their academic training.

By Jorge Anibal Chaluisa Ante, Blanca Patricia Diaz Vacacela

2023-05-30 Original
Labor load in critical areas and “TISS 28”

Introduction: nursing as the backbone of the global health care system. The workload in critical care units affects the quality of health care. The creation of therapeutic support units for medical specialties has increased their complexity. The Simplified Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System (TISS-28) determines workload. The lack or absence of the application of these tools within the ICU has evidenced a workload and caused adverse effects for the external and internal user.
Objective: to determine the nursing workload by means of the TISS-28 Prognostic System in the Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital General Docente Ambato.
Methods: a prospective, descriptive, cross-sectional, correlational, descriptive study was conducted during the period from June to August 2019; in the Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital General Docente Ambato.
Results: there is a deficit of nursing staff in the shift from 19 to 35%. The workload increases adverse events: Health Care Associated Infections, medication errors, deteriorating the quality of health care. Multiplying the workload of nursing staff in Intensive Care Units.
Conclusions: The TISS-28 scale has proven to be a reliable method to determine and distribute workload. Workload increased adverse events deteriorating the quality of health and the incidence of burnout syndrome in health care personnel.

By Jeannette M. Acosta Nuñez, Gessi Maribel Sandoval Balarezo, Mónica Guadalupe Paredes Garcés, Fanny Alexandra Supe Supe

2023-06-12 Original
Association of stress level with the development of metabolic syndrome in health personnel

Introduction: currently there are several risk factors which compromise the health of the person, leading to the development of countless pathologies such as hypertensive diseases, diabetes, obesity and arteriosclerosis and one of the main factors that affect this is stress.
Objective: to identify the association of stress level with the development of metabolic syndrome in health personnel of the General Hospital IESS of Ambato.
Method: the methodology used for data analysis of the study was based on a descriptive design with a prospective, correlational and cross-sectional quantitative approach. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was applied to the selected study subjects to determine the stressors that affect the normal development of functions in the participating hospitals. This instrument consists of 14 items or questionnaires that measure the degree to which life situations are considered stressful.
Conclusions: There is correlation between the development of metabolic syndrome and the level of stress in the study subjects.

By Ingrid Ashqui Lascano, Evelin Velasco Acurio, José Herrera López, Diana Martínez Garcia, Eulalia Analuisa Jiménez, Verónica Cobo Sevilla

2023-05-22 Original
Caregiver syndrome in primary caregivers of dependent older adults

Introduction: the older adult undoubtedly needs special care to perform daily activities due to age, illness or disability, they require the presence of a caregiver the same performs activities in order to meet the needs.
Objective: to determine the prevalence of caregiver overload in primary caregivers of dependent older adults.
Methods: quantitative, descriptive, non-experimental cross-sectional study. It is considered a correlational study, using the Zarit and Barthel scales in a population of 119 primary caregivers. The study was based on ethical considerations governed by the Helsinki code, which emphasizes the protection of the rights and the guarantee and welfare of the people participating in research.
Results: the results showed that most of the caregivers were women (63 %) of middle and old age (80,7 %). The level of overload in the primary caregivers is established at 66 % in which overload and intense overload are obtained according to Zarit. Pearson’s correlation analysis revealed a significant correlation between the overload syndrome and the level of dependency of the older adult.
Conclusion: it is evident that caregiver overload is present in one third of the caregivers giving a prevalence of 55,4 % of overload distributed between mild and intense; there is a need to implement effective support and care measures for caregivers, in order to improve the quality of care and protect their health and well-being.

By Rita Guadalupe Shulca Tipantuña, Carola del Rocío Cortez Flores

2023-05-16 Original
Design of an eco-efficiency system for sustainable development in the university context

The main objective of the research is to determine the relationship between the design of an eco-efficiency system and the sustainable development of the Universidad Nacional José Faustino Sánchez Carrión. The study has a quantitative approach, non-experimental design, transectional cut and correlational scope. There was a population of 1304 workers, including teachers and administrative staff, from which a sample of 297 workers was obtained. The information was managed by means of the survey, using the questionnaire as an instrument, whose reliability was 0.971, according to Cronbach's Alpha coefficient, and the validity was 0.91, according to the content validity method carried out by three expert judges. Finally, it was possible to prove that there is an asymptotic significance (p=0.000) lower than the significance level (0.05), with a Spearman's Rho correlation of R= 0.490 considered positive and moderate. In other words, the design of an eco-efficiency system has a direct relationship with the sustainable development of the Universidad Nacional José Faustino Sánchez Carrión. This allowed inferring that such design allows reducing expenses in energy, water, paper and related materials, fuels, as well as adequately managing solid waste, making environmentally sustainable public purchases, promoting a culture of eco-efficiency and using clean technologies. In other words, these actions implemented, thanks to the eco-efficiency design, will improve the sustainable development of the university.

By Algemiro Julio Muñoz-Vilela, Flor de María Lioo-Jordan, Luis Alberto Baldeos-Ardian, Santiago Ernesto Ramos Y Yovera, Abrahán Cesar Neri-Ayala, Naylamp Paola Ramos-Oyola

2023-07-01 Original
Factors influencing the cessation of breastfeeding in children under 1 year of age

Introduction: Breast milk contains all the nutrients that a child needs for its development and has several advantages over developed alternatives. It is considered the most complete vaccine of all time. Since the abandonment of exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life is increasing, there is a need to identify the risk factors that affect it.
Objective: To determine the factors that influence the abandonment of breastfeeding in children under 1 year of age.
Methods: The study has a quantitative approach of a descriptive type and a cross-sectional design, carried out in the period September 2022- January 2023. A questionnaire-type instrument was used, a survey of exclusive breastfeeding applied to 111 mothers.
Results: A relationship was found with the interruption of exclusive breastfeeding: mothers who work outside the home (48.6%), mothers who perceived milk production as insufficient (40.5%), early use of milk formula (71.2%); mothers with more than two children (24.3%), were the most relevant in this study.
Conclusions: The predominant maternal age is between 18-23 years, without schooling, primiparous mothers expressed their fear of insufficient milk production, it was possible to observe the predominance of mixed breastfeeding, due to the fact that most mothers presented labor impediments and almost half reported breast pain.

By Paulina Tigasi, Carolina Arráiz de Fernández

2023-05-28 Original
Design and implementation of a low-cost orbital shaker for laboratories

Orbital shakers are of great importance in plant culture laboratories, however, the high cost of this equipment often makes it impossible for researchers to acquire them. Therefore, the objective of the study was to design and implement a low-cost orbital shaker for plant culture laboratories. The type of research was applied and experimental. As results, the 3D printed design of the support structure was obtained, as well as the control system based on an ATmega328P microcontroller. The range of the revolutions per minute of the orbital shaker was between 0 and 350rpm. It is concluded that the orbital shaker meets the objective set out in this research, obtaining an implementation cost of USD 153.50 US dollars.

By Ernesto Díaz-Ronceros, Ángel David Hernández-Amasifuen, William Joel Marín-Rodriguez, Daniel Andrade Girón, José Luis Ausejo-Sánchez, Algemiro Julio Muñoz-Vilela, Abrahán Cesar Neri-Ayala

2023-05-20 Original
Incidence of pediatric patients with diarrheal diseases in the health post tres cerritos - pasaje in the period 2020 - 2022

Objective: This study aims to determine the incidence of diarrheal diseases in pediatric patients of the Tres Cerritos Health Post in the Pasaje Canton during the period 2020 - 2022.
Methods: A cross-sectional observational-descriptive study was conducted. The pediatric population studied consisted of 5,774 children, among whom 76 cases of acute diarrhea were observed in children of both sexes. The PRAS system (Plataforma Registro de Salud) was used for data collection. Statistical analysis was carried out with Epi Info and Excel, presenting qualitative variables with frequency values (f), percentage (%) and quantitative variables with measures of central tendency and dispersion (mean, median/standard deviation, interquartile range).
Results: According to the data collected in PRAS, an incidence of acute diarrhea of 13.16 per 1,000 inhabitants was determined. The average age of the affected children ranged from 2 to 9 years, with a predominance of the male sex (54%). The most affected age group was 2 to 4 years (49%). The most frequent symptomatology was diarrhea (42%), followed by the combination of diarrhea and vomiting (16%).
Conclusion: The incidence of diarrhea in the Tres Cerritos Health Post was relatively low in the pediatric population. This is due to the fact that respiratory pathologies predominated during the study period, affecting the male sex more frequently.

By Julio Ismael Hidalgo Ruiz, Wilson Adrian Huailas Suquilanda, Zoila Katherine Salazar Torres

2023-05-30 Original
Leadership styles: a study in Latin America, the United States and Europe

Introduction: leadership styles vary in organizations due to multiple factors, such as policies or organizational culture. Today's globalized world and post-pandemic times require a leader capable of integrating people and motivating them to achieve objectives.
Objective: the aim of this study was to analyze leadership styles in organizations in Latin America, the United States and Europe.
Method: a sample of eighty-one leaders were administered a questionnaire composed of twenty-one items, in order to evaluate the leadership style with the Blake and Mouton test, in order to identify whether leaders are people-oriented or task-oriented.
Results: once the test was applied to the leaders of the study sample, it was found that 1.23% are social leaders, 4.94% are authoritarian leaders and 93.83% are team leaders.
Conclusions: today's society demands an integrative leadership style that helps transform the work team. Research on leadership identifies multiple factors that can lead to the selection of a leadership style. In this regard, the results obtained revealed that the team leadership style is the one most used by leaders.

By Rolando Eslava Zapata, Jesús Alfonso Omaña Guerrero, Francisco Javier Sierra Narváez, Johanna Milena Mogrovejo Andrade

2023-06-14 Original
A novel multithresholding algorithm for segmentation of the MRI images

Segmentation is a crucial stage in picture evaluation techniques. Brain magnetic resonance imaging has been accurately segmented, extensively studied because the use of these types of methods allows the detection and recognition of a wide range of disorders. Thresholding is a simple and effective method for segmenting images. But depending on how many thresholds are employed for segmentation, thresholding-based techniques have a tendency to cost more to compute. As a result, metaheuristic algorithms are a crucial tool for multilevel thresholding that aid in determining the best values. Using a novel cuckoo search (NCS) algorithm, we have suggested a method for segmenting MRI images that is more efficient. Three different objective functions (Otsu's method, Kapur entropy, and Tsallis entropy function) were utilised by comparing the output of the projected strategy with the Cuckoo Search (CS) algorithm.

By Bhavna Kaushik Pancholi, Pramodkumar Sevantilal Modi, Nehal Gitesh Chitaliya

2023-07-07 Original
Patient Identification and Gender Identity: Knowledge and Attitudes towards the Care of Transgender Patients from the Perspective of Nursing Staff.

Introduction: Compliance with the Gender Identity Law (No. 26,743) introduces a series of challenges and tensions that require the adaptation of patient identification processes in need of hospital care.
Objective: To describe the knowledge and attitudes of nursing professionals in healthcare institutions in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area (AMBA) regarding the Gender Identity Law and the patient identification process, as well as the characteristics of the undergraduate training received in relation to healthcare and the nursing profession from a gender perspective.
Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional observational study in which 111 nurses engaged in patient care tasks in public and private healthcare facilities with inpatient services were surveyed. An electronic survey with closed and open-ended questions was used. Descriptive statistical analysis tools were used for data analysis.
Results: 45% of the respondents work in an institution with a Patient Quality and Safety department, and 73.9% have guidelines for patient identification. 72.1% are familiar with the Gender Identity Law, but 43.2% believe they can refuse to use the name provided by the patient to avoid identification errors during hospitalization. 92.8% expressed a positive attitude towards the care of transgender/transvestite individuals, but 66.7% did not receive training on gender identity.
Conclusions: The nursing team faces difficulties in implementing patient safety guidelines in accordance with gender identity legislation due to institutional requirements.

By Ermelinda Salinas, Silvia Pérez, Silvio Saravia, Valeria Cros Báez, Viviana Galarza, Victoria Sánchez Antelo

2023-07-05 Original
Survival in patients with Triple Negative Breast Cancer Subtype: Institutional Experience

Background: Breast cancer with a triple-negative molecular profile is an aggressive disease with poor prognosis, regardless of stage. Since the mortality of these patients increases and their risk of relapse doubles or triples, overall and disease-free survival are typically short.
Methods: This was an observational, descriptive, and cross-sectional study. 44 clinical histories were analyzed in patients treated for triple-negative breast cancer in the Oncology Area of the Hospital “José Carrasco Arteaga” from 2014 to 2018, with a minimum follow-up time of 3 years. The variables included in the study were tumor stage, type of surgery, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, adjuvant chemotherapy, chemotherapeutic agents, mortality, disease relapse, overall survival, and disease-free survival. SPSS IMB version 21 was used to tabulate and analyze the collected data. The results are presented in graphics, single-entry, and double-entry tables.
Results: The study population included 44 patients, aged 30–93 years. The age between 50-69 years was the most frequently affected (54.6 %); 31.8% of the patients were in stage IIA at the time of diagnosis; the median disease-free survival it was 15.42 months (6-29); the frequency of relapses was 15.9% and mortality was 22.72%; the mean overall survival was 29.10 months (13-60); and there was a statistically significant relationship between disease relapse and locally advanced stage IIIA (p=0.004).
Conclusions: The prognosis of triple-negative breast carcinoma is poor, and because of its more aggressive behavior, it has a shorter disease-free interval and overall survival, presenting a greater risk of developing a poor response to treatment. Patients diagnosed at locally advanced stages of the disease have a higher risk of relapse.

By Christian Alexander Lema Guaraca, Luis Xavier Illares Guncay, Andrés Sebastián Rodríguez Balarezo

2023-08-22 Original
Arbovirus epidemic in the Juan León Mallorquín health center in Paraguay

The term arboviruses was used in the 1930s, when several viruses were isolated from arthropods, with the Aedes aegypti mosquito as the main vector. When infected, mosquitoes infect individuals through the bite, raising concern in relation to the public health context as they cause major epidemics in different parts of the world. Among them, those with greater evidence are Dengue, Zika Virus and Chikungunya. This article aims to identify and analyze the epidemiological profile of arbovirus infections in the city of Doctor Juan León Mallorquín, Paraguay, through the epidemiology sector of the Health Center of Juan León Marlloquín, epidemiological data were made available, using a form epidemiology of Arbovirus and a study of research articles through a bibliographic review. The data were reorganized and referred. We observed that the tendency of cases is to increase gradually, since changes in temperature, food availability and the amount of larvae contribute significantly to the development of the mosquito. In the analysis of the descriptive study and epidemiological profile on the transmission of the arboviruses Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya in this article, it was pointed out that of the 169 cases notified from January 2021 to February 2023, 102 were women, with a higher prevalence in the age group from 1 to 10 years old. The most common symptoms were fever, myalgia, arthralgia and headache. In view of the above, the repercussion that these arboviruses cause is noticeable and how essential their control is. In this sense, it denotes the importance of data collection for new ideas and investments for the creation of health strategies, aimed at controlling the vector of these specific diseases.

By Andrea Villamayor Amarilla, Makarena Velazquez, Raianny Guimarães Brito, Mirella Régia Ferreira Feijão, Hamanda Victória Estevão Ferreira

2023-06-24 Original
Development of a New Algorithm for Classifying Cerebral Tumours Using MRI Images

Healthcare scientists determined how MRI images have indeed been highly beneficial in latest times in the investigation of the recognition and early identification of a brain disease. The main primary stages in analysing the brain MRI pictures are image pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction, and classification. Among the crucial processes that can evaluate how well brain MRI scans can be classified and ultimately the condition it will indicate is feature extraction and segmentation. In this paper stage wise methods are described. In the first stage (pre-processing stage) different filters; like; median, wiener, anisotropic, non-local means as well as combined filters used. In the pre-processing part, combined wiener and anisotropic filter gives the best result. In the second stage (segmentation stage), multi-thresholding technique – cuckoo search algorithm used using different objective functions; like; ostu, kapur entropy, tsallis entropy and proposed. In the proposed method of the segmentation stage used cuckoo search algorithm using combined ostu and tsallis entopy as an objective function. In the third stage (feature extraction), discrete wavelet transform used and in the fourth stage (classification) support vector machine used. In each stage results are compared using different parameters and we got best output using proposed method.

By Bhavna Kaushik Pancholi, Pramodkumar Sevantilal Modi, Nehal Gitesh Chitaliya

2023-06-19 Original
Contrasting Educational Strategies in Health Sciences vs. Non-Health Sciences Disciplines: Insights from Scopus Database

Introduction: Education plays a pivotal role in shaping the knowledge, skills, and competencies of individuals across various fields of study.
Aim: to contrast educational strategies used in health sciences with those employed in disciplines unrelated to health.
Methods: The present study is primarily based on primary literature, mostly academic articles, indexed in the Scopus database. The aim of using this method is to quantify the documents referring to bibliometric analysis as a working tool in two categories for subsequent analysis: non-health-related categories (NH) and health-related categories (H). The groups were examined separately with a productivity and citation analysis to assess their impact.
Results: During this period, there is a gradual increase in the number of documents in both groups. In the NH group, the number of documents increased from 907 in 2013 to 2422 in 2022. Meanwhile, in the H group, the number of documents increased from 192 in 2013 to 490 in 2022. Overall, there is an increase in the number of documents in both groups over time, with the NH group exhibiting a higher number of documents compared to the H group in each year. it is observed that both groups have a low level of international collaboration, although the NH group shows a slightly higher proportion. On the other hand, the H group exhibits a higher proportion of national collaboration and a lower lack of collaboration compared to the NH group. Both groups demonstrate a high level of institutional collaboration. A greater heterogeneity is observed in areas other than health.
Conclusions: This study has provided an integrated view of research in health-related and non-health-related categories. The results emphasize the importance of promoting international collaboration and strengthening collaboration networks in both groups. Furthermore, key thematic areas in the field of nursing education, healthcare and clinical practice, human behavior and psychology, and teaching and learning have been identified. These findings can be useful for researchers, educators, and healthcare professionals interested in addressing these topics in the context of training and clinical practice, as well as for those seeking to understand current trends and interrelationships in the field of education.

By Daniel Santos Silva-Nieves, Arthur Giuseppe Serrato-Cherres, Judith Marita Soplin Rojas, Arturo César Pomacaja Flores, Pamela Jennifer Sullca-Tapia

2023-06-28 Original
Motivation in virtual classrooms during COVID-19: experiences of nursing students

The objective of the study was to analyze the motivation of nursing students during virtual classes, the methodology used was a qualitative approach, with a phenomenological design and a descriptive level, the sample was 10 nursing students and the applied technique was the interview. made up of 36 questions, which are found within three subcategories of analysis: description of the assessment, evaluation of expectations and analysis of affectivity. The results indicated that the motivation for learning was complicated from a remote way, often depending on the subject that was their turn, some of which were interesting and also, thanks to virtuality, they developed digital and technological skills. It is concluded that the nursing students took advantage of the virtual classes, encouraging them to create the habit of researching, reviewing, going back to see the class over and over again, allowing them to understand each session taught well, likewise favored personal development.

By Mercedes Olga Jara-Avellaneda, Yolanda Josefina Huayta-Franco, Esther Rosa Saenz Arenas, Jaime Manuel Cohaila Flores

2023-08-02 Original
The significance of interprofessional collaboration in enhancing patient safety within healthcare

When healthcare experts from many disciplines work together to provide thorough and efficient patient care, this is referred to as interprofessional collaboration. It is impossible to overestimate the importance of interprofessional cooperation in raising patient safety within the healthcare system. 306 students participated in a 4-hour program that included three team simulation exercises and a 1-hour TeamSTEPPS session. By program, students were divided and asked to choose a main point. Perspectives, opinions, and possibilities for collaboration were investigated in pre- and post-assessments. Pre and post tests were completed by 49% of the students. Improvements in attitudes toward teamwork, motivation, the value of training, self-efficacy, and TeamSTEPPS abilities are significant. Strengthened interprofessional team interaction and understanding of patient advocacy. For patient safety, efficient collaboration among teammates is crucial. In a significant interprofessional TeamSTEPPS-based program encompassing four student professions, we establish beneficial attitude and knowledge consequences.

By Jasline M, Geetika Madan Patel, Kavina Ganapathy

2023-08-02 Original
Improving the health outcomes of individuals with chronic illness through the delivery of healthcare services

The move in the healthcare system toward an emphasis on chronic care may be easier to manage if the Wagner model serves as a guide. We define the health demands of patients with chronic disease and compare them to services that should ideally be supplied by a patient-centered health system, drawing on components of this framework and health policies linked to patient-centered care. This article helps readers better understand the unique problems patients face using chronic circumstances with their family carer while interacting with the healthcare scheme and a service provider. To understand more about the challenge faced by the populace utilizing complex diabetes, Chronic Heart Failure (CHF), or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we conducted interviews with patients, carers, and healthcare professionals (HCPs). Patients indicated a variety of demands and objectives about the caliber of their interactions with HCPs, and these needs and wishes were conveyed as worries. There was a need for 1) better HCP communication and information delivery; 2) more organized health services with shorter stages to see HCPs; 3) support for self-care; 4) a better professional understanding of the requirements for holistic as well as ongoing care; and 5) patient as well as caregiver involvement in Decision-Making Processes (DMP). Health policy is more closely linked than it now is to accommodate the needs and preferences of persons with chronic conditions and solve their issues.

By Libin Joseph, Devanshu Patel J, Sandeep Kumar C

2023-08-02 Original
The influence of cultural competence on healthcare outcomes

Background: The demand to improve nurses' Cultural Competence (CC) was recently introduced to light by the growing cultural variety in healthcare in European nations. It is possible to enhance culturally competent treatment by evaluating CC and identifying pertinent influencing variables. The purpose of this research was to use the Cultural Competence Assessment (CCA) scale to measure the CC of nurses and nursing students working in acute care settings and to identify influencing variables.
Methods: The design was cross-sectional. Data was collected in March 2021 from nurses and nursing students enrolled in their last year of education and employed in acute care facilities. The research participants' general features and degrees of general CC were shown using descriptive analysis. The influencing aspects of CC were examined using a multiple linear regression analysis.
Results: The cultural proficiency of the nurses ranged from moderate to excellent. Age, educational attainment, cultural diversity training (CDT), and self-perceptions of CC all had a significant impact on the level.
Conclusions: All healthcare professionals, including nurses who interact with patients frequently, need to be prepared to offer CC healthcare for patients from a variety of cultural backgrounds. Delivering CC care involves the implementation of effective interventions, such as educational training, which may help to eliminate healthcare inequities and enhance patient outcomes.

By Harita Nair M, Apurvakumar Pandya, Suphiya Parveen

2023-08-02 Original
The impact of mindfulness training for nurses in lowering stress and enhancing well-being

Objective: This study aimed to determine that a short Mindfulness-Based (MB) training program could assist critical care nurses feel lowering stress and being more in control of their enhancing well-being (WB).
Method: To assess the program's efficacy, a design consisting of a pre-post study with a single group and a quasi-experimental approach was used. This study was conducted in Malaysia at a tertiary referrals facility. The initiative included 40 nurses in critical care that volunteered as a part of a non-probability sample. With at least 79% attendance, 36 people finished the course.
Results: The process is a condensed form of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (b-MBCT), known locally as Mindful-Gym. The b-MBCT is a five-week based on groups course that meets once a week for two hours and includes practice sessions in between. It was distributed as a component of the hospital's ongoing training for nursing staff. The outcomes associated with stress were evaluated using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS). In requisites of the results of one's state of WB, the Mindfulness Attention and Awareness Scale and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) were used.
Conclusion: Participants said that their perception of stress had significantly decreased after finishing the session (PSS: q < .001; s = 0.40), anxiety (DASS-B: q < .001; s =0.33), stress (DASS-T: q = .001; e = 0.53), depression (DASS-E: q < .001; s = 0.35), and happiness (SHS: q = .026; e = 0.53), having an impact magnitude ranging from mild to significant. The findings provide credence to the efficacy of b-MBCT in lowering stress and enhancing WB with nurses working in critical care settings.

By Uzma Noor Shah, Shivangi Gupta, Betty Koshy

2023-08-02 Original
Nurse-Led Strategies to Enhance Medication Adherence in Older Patients after Hospital Discharge

Discharged older adult inpatients are often administered a variety of drugs. However, many only take roughly half of their medications and many discontinue treatment. Nursing strategies might enhance medication adherence in this group. The goal of this research is to assess the efficacy of nurse-led transitional care strategies after hospital discharge of older patients versus usual care in enhancing cognitive processes, physical performance, signs of depression and stress, perceptions of social support, patient satisfaction, and the costs associated with medical service use among older patients with multiple chronic conditions and signs of depression. Three sites in Ontario, Canada were used for a pragmatic multi-site randomized controlled research. Individuals were randomly assigned to either an intervention group or a control (normal care) group. 127 people over the age of 65 were discharged from the hospital with several chronic conditions and signs of depression. Over six months, a Registered Nurse provided individualized care through cell phone follow-up, house visits, and device navigation help as part of an evidence-based, patient-centered intervention. The main result was a shift in cognitive performance between the first and sixth months. Alterations in physical performance, depressed symptoms, stress, and social support perceived, patient satisfaction, and the cost of health care usage were secondary results measured from baseline to six months. ANCOVA modeling was used for the intention-to-treat analysis.

By Upendra Sharma Udayashankar Sulibele, Jitendra Singh, Ravindra

2023-08-02 Original
Implications for nursing practice on the association between sleep and health outcomes

Between January and December of 2020, a prospective, cross-sectional, observational research was done with 264 nursing staff members, selected among 989 individuals at “Botucatu General Hospital” and stratified by professional type. Sleep quality (SQ) was measured using the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), while sleep and health were measured using the WHOSAH. A conventional questionnaire was used to obtain expressed characteristics. Means and standard deviations for constant variables and percentages for categorical ones were provided. The correlation coefficient of Spearman's was used to analyze the strength of relationships. A statistical regression analysis, with age adjustment, was used to assess the link between night shift employment and gender in terms of sleep disruption. P 0.05 was considered significant. When considering age, the association between night shift work and a considerable decline in sleep quality for at least one measure remained substantial. Sleep problems were more common among women. A strong relationship existed between how well you slept and lived. There is a correlation between how well nurses sleep and how satisfied they are with their lives, both of which are influenced by the nature of the nursing profession

By Roma Patel, Asha Kademane, Surendra Dadheech

2023-08-02 Original
The utilization of artificial intelligence in life science research and healthcare delivery

The goal of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the system for innovation and identify the reasons that prevent Artificial intelligence (AI) healthcare technology advancements connected to the life sciences sector from being implemented. To evaluate the structural and efficient dynamics of AI healthcare technology advances associated with the life science business in West Sweden, the socio-technical analytical framework of Technological innovation systems (TIS) was employed. Using a mixed-methods research methodology, the case study triangulates qualitative and quantitative information since subordinate distributed sources and discussions with twenty-one experts and twenty-five life science industry leaders. According to the findings, the functioning of the innovation system is largely constrained by its limitations, which include a lack of resources and inadequate statements from top healthcare experts about their requirements for advancing healthcare via the use of AI technological advances. This research demonstrates that to enhance the performance of the innovation system, governmental interventions aimed at expanding the pool of resources as well as creating vision and purpose statements for the advancement of healthcare via AI technology breakthroughs may be promoted. By using the socio-technical TIS paradigm in a hospital setting, this research advances our knowledge of the processes and interdependencies across system works.

By Harshal Shah, Bhuvana Jayabalan, Amali Mery

2023-08-02 Original
The Influence of Electronic Health Records on Nursing Practice within Hospital Settings

Usability issues with electronic health records (EHRs) represent a growing threat to the health of nurses and patients, despite the fact that few studies have examined these correlations in depth. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the use of electronic health records has affected nursing practice in hospital settings. EHR adoption and care quality have yet to be extensively studied. The American Hospital Association (AHA) data, state patient discharges, and a survey of nurses were all used to conduct cross-sectional studies. The sample includes 1,281,848 surgical patients, 12,004 nurses, and 343 hospitals. Logistic regression models were used for uncontrolled, randomized studies examining the correlation between EHR usability and outcomes. Using logistic regression models, we analyzed the relationship between nurse-assessed quality of care outcomes and the use of even the most fundamental electronic health record systems. Nurses who worked in facilities equipped with even the most basic EHRs reported significantly fewer incidences than their colleagues at hospitals without EHRs; they had worse results in patient security and other quality measures. Implementing even a minimal EHR could improve the quality of nursing care, facilitate more effective care coordination, and boost patient safety.

By Asha Kademane, Peekesh Kumar, Bulbul Chaudhary

2023-09-09 Original
The incorporation of information and communication technologies in medication administration: opportunities and challenges for nursing management

Introduction: The safe and efficient administration of medications is essential to guarantee the quality of medical care and the safety of patients. The adoption of information and communication technologies (ICT) in this process can improve accuracy and efficiency, reduce errors.
Objective: Determine the incorporation of information and communication technologies in medication administration: opportunities and challenges for nursing management. Methods: Quantitative, descriptive and transversal approach. A questionnaire was applied that has a Cronbach's alpha = 0.9, composed of 5 closed questions based on a Likert scale, the same one that was applied to health personnel who work at the San Pablo Health Center, Bolívar Province, Ecuador.
Results: The nursing staff presents different levels of competence. Certain participants show a low level in certain dimensions, while others demonstrate a medium or high level of competence. Challenges are identified in areas such as the management of digital systems, digital communication, information processing and content generation.
Conclusions: The incorporation of ICT in the administration of medications in the field of nursing management offers significant opportunities to improve safety, efficiency and quality in medical care. It is recommended to provide adequate training and support to strengthen the digital skills of nursing staff.

By Luis Felipe Chileno Camacho, Diana Nancy Martínez García, Evelyn Fernanda Velasco Acuario, Cristofher Israel Tacle Humanante

2023-08-02 Original
The Evolution of Nursing Practice from Florence Nightingale to Modern Nursing

To consider Florence Nightingale's social entrepreneurship and the evolution of modern and current nursing. This sensible intelligent show, which depends on readings of texts separated from electronic information bases, especially periodicals, books, and postulations, underscores the hypothetical underpinnings of social business and Florence Nightingale inheritance from current to contemporary nursing. Brazilian nursing's evolution from innovation to contemporaneity. The display's key subjects are the development of Brazilian nursing from innovation to contemporaneity and Florence Nightingale effect as a social business visionary. The influence of Florence Nightingale on the development of modern and current nursing is evident and cuts across many other fields of study. It was a forerunner of modern nursing and stands out for its visionary outlook, humanistic social value, and capacity to change the realities and courses of the contemporary day.

By Renuka Jyothi R, Poonam Sharma, Bulbul Chaudhary

2023-08-02 Original
The Effects of Collaborative Simulation Education on Patient Safety in Medical Education

One of the busiest paediatric emergency departments (ED) in the United States is located at Cincinnati Children's Hospital. "High volume, high acuity, and frequent interruptions" all contribute to a higher risk of error. Improving patient safety (PS) in an ED by introducing “multidisciplinary, simulation-based curriculum" that emphasizes teamwork and interaction. The ED's whole staff of medical professionals served as subjects. Teams from several disciplines took part in simulation-based training sessions that addressed teamwork and interaction techniques in pressing clinical situations. Evaluations of "essential simulations, knowledge tests, safety attitudes test, and real performance in the ED resuscitation bay" were conducted. The adoption of routine in situ simulations and the requirement that all new employees complete simulation-based training were strategies used to maintain improvements. The initial session was attended by 291 individuals. On an average of 11.2 months after the initial evaluation, 158 participants showed up. It was clear that knowledge and attitudes had improved over time. In the ED, simulation training is a useful technique for changing attitudes towards safety and cooperative behaviors. Repeated practice opportunities are necessary for social and behavioral modifications to last.

By Upendra Sharma Udayashankar Sulibele, Satish Prajapati, Meena Desai

2023-08-02 Original
Nursing Practice Improvement Strategies for Reducing Medication Errors

The safety of the patient is put at risk by medication mistakes, particularly during administration. In order to achieve Joint Commission International (JCI) certification, a Chinese hospital undertook research to lower medication errors (MEs). Comprehensive interventions were carried out, and the number of MEs fell by 58.3% between the first half of 2016 and the first half of 2018. During the same time frame, there was a 55.6% drop in high-alert drug mistakes. The majority of mistakes were omissions, which decreased by 50%. Errors in intravenous administration also declined. Nurses with more experience made fewer mistakes, and surgical wards had twice as many mistakes as medical wards. ME rates were greater in intensive care units. In order to improve pharmaceutical safety, the study emphasized the value of teamwork among healthcare professionals, including doctors, chemists, nurses, information engineers, and administrators. It was discovered that JCI certification enhanced MEs awareness, prevention, and quality enhancements. Overall, the study supported the 3-and-a-half-year intervention program's ability to reduce MEs.

By Malathi Hanumanthayya, Basavaraj Mudhol, Varsha Agarwal

2023-08-04 Original
Development of a Wearable Technology for the Early Detection of Pressure Ulcers in Nursing Homes

As the body deteriorates and develops various ailments, aging inevitably impacts health. When dealing with these issues, healthcare is crucial to healing. Hospital patients' physical and emotional health is worsened by age-related pressure ulcers (PU). This study suggested developing a wearable device for nursing homes to use in the early diagnosis of PU. We also use data augmentation methods to increase our dataset's size and improve our model's robustness. The suggested system uses a wearable gadget to continuously track the patient's location and wireless communication with a tablet to notify the nurse when a patient turn is approaching, following the hospital's policy. The hospital's cloud technology allows for centralized monitoring by recording and updating the turning operation and the patient's position, which is continuously tracked. In a controlled environment, the system could track the patient's posture continually and precisely identify typical patient poses. A Water Wave Optimization with Convolutional Neural Network (WWO-CNN) method is described to prevent PU better. Our method achieves an overall accuracy, precision, recall, and F1-score, which is encouraging. Our practice offers a more effective and precise solution for the detection and classification of PU when compared to existing research that essentially uses WWO-CNN-based algorithms. Our method can potentially enhance early diagnosis and treatment of PU, leading to better patient outcomes and lower medical costs.

By Bhargavi Deshpande, Malathi Hanumanthayya, Ram Niwas

2023-08-06 Original
Creating a Ground-breaking Interprofessional Education Program for Optimal Healthcare Delivery

Critical adjustments are needed in the health professions curricula to produce prepared graduates for the workforce. Our goal was to consider the applicability and use of the interprofessional education program (IPD) design for the Department of Health Sciences at North-West University in South Africa. This research used an ordered multidisciplinary design to create an IPD curriculum for a South African medical faculty. To summarize the global organization, development, and execution processes of IPD programs, a scoping review was done. An examination of IPD programs from institutions across five continents came next. The viewpoints of worldwide specialists on the creation and execution of IPD programs were subsequently investigated in a qualitative study. After that, the setting of universities was examined, and a draft IPD program was developed utilizing the data compiled from all earlier investigations. Faculty members were given the program to review and comment using an insignificant group technique. The IPD program development process was established in ten parts for the scoping study. Through each phase, manual and to-do lists were supplied for the subjective analysis of documents to assist educators in conceptualizing, creating, executing, and reviewing their IPD programs. Four themes were found during the personal exploratory, descriptive design transcript analysis. To prepare for full academic incorporation of the IPD into the teaching staff of Health care programs throughout subsequent development of the health science curricula, a three-year option IPD program was created. The established alternative 3-year IPD program will act as an example of how a credit-bearing IPD doctorate can eventually be incorporated into the academic programs of the Department of Health Sciences.

By Basavaraj Mudhol, Siddharth Shahani, Suphiya Parveen

2023-08-07 Original
The translation of technological advancements to enhance patient safety through nursing innovations implemented at the Point of care

The use of internet-based surveillance technology platforms is thought to benefit patients in nursing homes by enhancing their protection and the standard of care while also streamlining the job of the caregivers. A good strategy for creating and applying digital innovations and adapting the product or service is co-creation. The purpose of this research was to examine shared creation as an adoption method and practice, as well as to determine the enablers and challenges to the use of technological surveillance technologies in the residential setting for people with dementia and roaming behavior. An inductive content review of the qualitative and quantitative data was conducted after the data had been logically analyzed using an approach for the drivers of development. A greater number of resources were needed for the execution than those involved had expected for the gradual modifications since it constituted a major change. As a whole, the joint development technique stood out as the key enabler, leading to a more secure night surveillance system. The procedure of successfully implementing novel electronic surveillance technologies within care facilities is difficult and time-consuming, and it becomes even more challenging when the innovation enables medical professionals to fundamentally alter surgical procedures at the Point of care, opening up new opportunities for individuals and caregivers to co-create value. Long-term digitization of municipality medical services necessitates the direct integration of increasingly sophisticated IT skills into the administration and delivery of medical services as well as collaboratively creating values with those using the services and their families.

By Ram Kumar Garg, Hina Thakkar, Kavina Ganapathy

2023-08-07 Original
A novel role for enhancing nurse-technology interfaces and medical device advancements for patient care

To instruct a new generation of professional, this paper will highlight two innovative nursing and health technology collaborations and produce cutting-edge research and breakthroughs. A highly competent response, including teams of experts from several disciplines, is required for complex health concerns. Opportunities for improved technology-nurse interaction and consequent innovation arise if the clinical perspective of nursing is included while viewing medical engineering through a wider lens. The finest training-seeking experienced nurse specialists who can be cutting-edge and bring unique suggestions to enhance patient care and results are found in double nursing engineering degree programs. The background in innovations and engineering in nursing is included in this examination, along with the justification for creating two state-of-the-art joint majors and information about those courses. This innovative program will advance healthcare-related technology and enhance the nursing profession's capacity for innovation in both design and execution. Additionally, by providing interdisciplinary training and encounters with college students pursuing medical specialists or bachelor's degrees in nursing, they can improve their knowledge and abilities. Even though nurses are not participating in designing and creating patient care devices, significant patient care improvement possibilities are lost. Creative nurse and engineer cooperation is required to capitalize on nurse creativity and develop patient care improvements.

By Basavaraj Mudhol, Meena Krishna, Asha Kademane

2023-07-25 Original
Factors associated with violence against nursing students at the rotary internship

Introduction: violence is a public health problem, among which we find workplace violence, which is identified when a worker suffers abuse, threats, and attacks that can be verbal and physical. Rotating internship nursing students play an important role within healthcare institutions.
Objective: to determine the factors associated with violence against nursing students in the rotating boarding school.
Methods: the study presents a non-experimental research design with a quantitative, descriptive, and cross-sectional approach in a group of nursing students of the rotating internship, with a sample of 121 participants, to whom a questionnaire with a reliability of 0.717 of Alpha Cronbach was applied.
Results: a low risk was reported about violence by the patient's family member with 88.43%, although a small group of students is at medium risk with 11.57%. As for the factors associated with violence, medium and high risk is shown at 56.2%.
Conclusions: nursing interns receive many physical, verbal, and psychological aggressions at work from relatives of patients and colleagues with higher hierarchies. In the current study, it was possible to observe the presence of blows in physical violence, humiliation, and rudeness in psychological violence and the individual associated factors of aggression by the immediate superior boss, by aggressors in altered mental state, and aggressors by the state of health of the relatives.

By Lisbeth Maritza Shingón De La Cruz, Carolina Arráiz de Fernández

2023-07-12 Original
Proceso de enfermería con lenguaje estandarizado, en el segundo nivel de atención

A quantitative and observational study with descriptive scope was conducted to evaluate the implementation of the nursing process with standardized language in second level of care hospitals. The research included 45 nurses who participated voluntarily and questionnaires validated by experts in the field were used. The results showed that most nurses use standardized methods and common terminology to identify health problems, develop individualized care plans, evaluate outcomes, and communicate in interdisciplinary settings. However, challenges were identified in the effective application of the knowledge acquired in daily practice, and the need for specific strategies to ensure the correct application of the nursing process with standardized language was identified. The data also revealed that there is room for improvement in the evaluation and follow-up of results and in the interdisciplinary communication of diagnoses. In conclusion, the nursing process with standardized language is a valuable tool for personalized and evidence-based comprehensive health surveillance, but its practical implementation requires concrete tactics to certify its proper execution on a day-to-day basis.

By Santiago Javier Azogue Tipan, William Jiménez Hurtado

2023-08-03 Original
Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in health personnel

Introduction: The metabolic syndrome (MS) has affected countless people in recent years, since it has currently harmed mainly people over 20 years of age, with a higher percentage in the female gender according to the sample of this research. Objective: To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in health personnel.
Methods: Descriptive design study with a quantitative approach, where laboratory tests and anthropometric measurements were taken together. The sampling was of the census type since 50 nursing professionals were taken from sentinel hospitals in the city of Ambato. The statistical process was carried out by tabulating the data using the statistical program SPSS 2.0.
Results: Among the main ones, Through the analysis carried out it was possible to show that around 30% of the population studied between 20 and 50 years of age, has at least 3 diagnostic criteria of metabolic syndrome such as: elevated blood pressure, increased body mass index, abdominal perimeter with high risk, higher HOMA index, high levels of basal glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides.
Conclusions: Metabolic syndrome is an alteration that affects at least 30% of health personnel, since 18 patients out of 50 participants have more than 3 diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome, without having an underlying and/or diagnosed disease.

By Julissa Bautista Cueva, Evelin Velasco Acurio, José Herrera López, Eulalia Analuisa Jimenez, Diana Martínez Garcia, Verónica Cobo Sevilla

2023-08-30 Original
Hospital practices and biosocial characteristics in the abandonment of exclusive breastfeeding in mothers

Objective: Hospital practices and biosocial characteristics in the abandonment of exclusive breastfeeding in mothers will be determined.
Methodos: Quantitative research, carried out in the community of San Pedro and Llucian between the months of September 2022 and February 2023 with a cross-section. Where 20 lactating women participated, who completed non-probabilistic inclusion criteria selected by the simple random test method, an interview was applied as a data collection technique and numerical and statistical results were presented. The results were tabulated using the SPSS software, framed the research in the ethical principles of the Declaration of Helsinki.
Results: The academic level was the most representative because the higher the education graduate, the higher the risk of abandoning breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life.
Conclusion: It is finally concluded that the biological and social aspects are responsible for causing a great impact in terms of the desertion of exclusive breastfeeding, in addition it has been possible to determine the importance and benefit of compliance with hospital practices in order to minimize the Effect of women's life experiences after childbirth.

By Mishell Stefanny Lema Grefa, Marianela Mejías

2023-08-30 Original
Peripheral venous insufficiency in nursing personnel

Introduction: Peripheral venous insufficiency (PVI) occurs as a consequence of morphological and functional abnormalities presented by the veins of the lower limbs. Objective: To determine the causes for the development of peripheral venous insufficiency in nursing personnel.
Methods: The research was quantitative, descriptive and cross-sectional, and was carried out in a public university in Ecuador. The sample consisted of 45 nursing professionals working in the health care and teaching areas. The selection was made by simple random sampling. Three instruments were applied: a general characteristics interview guide, a questionnaire to identify prolonged standing and a questionnaire to identify varicose veins. The data were processed with descriptive and percentage statistics.
Results: 51% were aged between 46 and 55 years, 42.2% cared for up to 10 patients, 82% remained standing for the longest time, 86.7% (chose work as the place with the longest standing time and 93% presented the symptom of pain.
Conclusion: standing as the main cause and pain as the most frequent symptom.

By Jefferson Alexander Ante Toaquiza, Marianela Mejías

2023-07-25 Original
Knowledge and perception of biosafety measures in nursing students

Introduction: Biosecurity is a set of norms and preventive measures that maintain control of occupational risk factors, such as chemical and physical biological risks.
Objective: To analyze the level of knowledge and perception of biosafety measures in nursing students.
Methods: the study used a non-experimental design with a quantitative cross-sectional approach, with a population of 150 sixth and seventh semester students of the Technical University of Ambato, Ecuador; through a survey with a validity of 98% and a reliability of alpha. Cronbach's score of 0.737.
Results: when analyzing the results, the level of knowledge of the students was positive since their knowledge is reliable with 64%. However, a lower reliability was evidenced in the types of isolates.
Conclusions: the results obtained in the present investigation allow us to conclude that the sixth and seventh semester students have an adequate level of knowledge about biosafety measures, waste classification, use of gloves and masks, and hand washing, which indicates that these will be put into practice and accidents will be avoided.

By Yesenia Gabriela Toapanta Llumiquinga, Tatiana Elizabeth Rivera Aguilar

2023-08-30 Original
Alcohol consumption and academic performance in nursing students

Introduction: Currently, the consumption of alcoholic beverages is considered a global public health problem that requires immediate and effective actions, and this problem has extended to the educational field. The main objective of this research was to analyze alcohol consumption and academic performance in students from the first to the seventh semesters of the nursing career in a public university in Ecuador.
Methods: A quantitative, correlational, non-experimental and cross-sectional research was conducted. The sample consisted of 252 students. The MEDMAR and AUDIT questionnaires were applied. The SPSS and Excel statistical package was used for the processing and analysis of the information collected. Confidentiality and informed consent were guaranteed.
Results: 11 students (4.4%) are in the probable addiction group with very good academic performance, 20 (7.9%) of the high-risk group of alcohol consumption have very good academic performance. It is evident that alcohol consumption has not affected academic performance.
Conclusions: There is no significant relationship between alcohol consumption and academic performance in nursing students at the public university of Ecuador. The results show that students with high risk of alcohol consumption and even those with probable addiction have very good and good performance.

By Brayan Saúl Rosero Villalva, Marianela Mejías

2023-08-03 Original
Study on effect of vaginal progesterone to prevent preterm Labour in Women having borderline short cervix detected during tiffa scan

Worldwide, preterm birth accounts for 9 to 12 percent of all birth-related death and morbidity among infants. Most reliably predicting preterm delivery is the length of the cervical canal in 16 - 24 weeks of pregnancy. A cervical length of 25-35 mm during 16–24 weeks of pregnancy is considered to be borderline. Role of progesterone is quite important during pregnancy in preventing contractions. The purpose of this research is to do a comparison of the efficacy of vaginal progesterone versus no treatment in preventing spontaneous preterm labour when a short cervix is diagnosed by TIFFA scan. 120 antenatal cases at 16 to 24 weeks of gestation were chosen. 60 patients with borderline short cervix were taken, out of which 30 patients who received vaginal progesterone were taken as cases, and 30 others who did not receive were taken as the control. 30 patients with the normal cervix who did not receive progesterone and 30 women who had smaller cervix who received vaginal progesterone were observed for their outcome. It was observed that in case (borderline cervix) group, there was more term deliveries (67%), in control (borderline cervix) was more early preterm deliveries (57%), in normal group was 100% term deliveries and in short cervix group was more early preterm deliveries (43%). Vaginal delivery was seen in 83% of patients in the case (borderline cervix),70% in control (borderline cervix),90% in the normal cervix, and 90% in the short cervix group.

By Punam Murmu, Ranjita Ghadei, Divya Evelyne Kuardar, Madhushree Naik

2023-08-23 Original
Work load of nursing staff in Intensive Care Units

Introduction: The workload of nursing staff in Intensive Care Units (ICU) has been the subject of several studies, it is conditioned by several factors such as the number, clinical severity, the special needs of critically ill patients, the amount of time dedicated to individual patient care. Work overload an important factor in the occurrence of incidents in ICUs.
Objective: Determine the workload of nursing staff in the ICU.
Method: The research has a quantitative approach, with a descriptive scope, and a non-experimental-transversal design. It was carried out with a census sample of 30 nursing graduates who work in the different Intensive Care Units of the Ambato Canton (Ecuador), in the period between September 2022- January 2023. For data collection, the 'scale' was used. 'Nursing Score Activities (NAS)', an instrument with validity and reliability, which evaluates the workload in 24 hours.
Results: A score was obtained on the NAS scale between 67.7 and 100%, which translates into a 1:1 nurse-patient relationship, which expresses that a patient requires only one nurse. The most frequent activities prevailed with 73.3%, 60%, 63.3% and 46.7%: monitoring and assessment of hourly signs, registration and calculation of fluid balance, clinical data processing and request for tests, administration of medication and mobilization of postural changes and hygiene of the patient.
Conclusions: Each graduate is assigned a patient, there is no work overload in the nursing graduates of the Ambato Canton.

By Jessica Núñez Barriga, Carolina Arráiz de Fernández

2023-07-30 Original
Patient's perception of the quality of care in the Ambulatory Surgery Unit of the Polyclinic Hospital of the western area of the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires

Patient-centered care plays a fundamental role in hospital management, focusing on patient satisfaction as a key indicator of quality of care. The study aims to explore patients' perceptions of the care provided in the public health system and to assess how these perceptions and the observance of their rights influence their level of satisfaction. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in the Outpatient Surgery Unit of the Polyclinic Hospital in the western area of the Buenos Aires suburbs, using the CARE-Q questionnaire to evaluate the satisfaction of 135 patients attended on an outpatient basis, respecting strict ethical principles and guaranteeing the confidentiality of the information obtained. The results of the study indicate an almost equal distribution of male and female patients, being predominantly those aged 53 to 64 years, mostly married, with secondary education level and Catholic religion; greater patient satisfaction was identified in the "trust relationship" variable of the CARE-Q questionnaire. However, no significant correlation was found between patient satisfaction and hours of hospitalization or age range. The study highlights high levels of patient satisfaction with nursing care, despite some shortcomings, and suggests research-based improvements and future studies to further optimize health care.

By Claudia Yanina Castillo

2023-09-10 Original
Academic stress and social network addiction in Peruvian university students

Introduction: Academic stress and addiction to social networks are current issues that affect many university students in Peru given the technological advancement and competitiveness of modern education.
Objective: To analyze the relationship between social network addiction and academic stress in Peruvian university students.
Methods: Quantitative, correlational, cross-sectional, non-experimental study. Validated and reliable questionnaires were applied to 168 university students who formed a sample with a margin of error of 5% and a confidence level of 95%.
Results: academic stress was at a medium level while addiction to social networks was at a medium-high level. The most relevant inferential results showed that academic stress had a moderate negative relationship with the dimensions of social network addiction: Obsession (Spearman's Rho = -0.434, p< .001), Lack of control (Spearman's Rho = -0.462, p< .001) and Excessive use (Spearman's Rho = -0.501, p< .001).
Conclusions: it was possible to determine a moderate negative relationship between academic stress and addiction to social networks (Spearman Rho = -0.482, p < .001), that is, it could be concluded that university students who experience higher levels of academic stress tend to use social networks less addictively.

By Guillermo Segundo Miñan Olivos, Jenny Caroly Flores Capcha, Andrea Rosario Piñas Illanes, Yesica Sonia Suria Huincho, Wendy Karina Toledo Figueroa, Jhon Anderson Garcia Zarzosa, Gian Carlos Mejia Huerta

2023-09-16 Original
Risk factors and alarm signs associated with suicide

Introduction: Suicide is the second cause of death in Ecuador, according to the INEC the statistics of death by suicide in adolescents from 10 to 19 years old is 13.1% because this stage brings with it physical and psychological changes causing drastic behavior changes, which are influenced by factors and signs associated with suicide.
Objective: To determine the risk factors and warning signs associated with suicide in adolescents at the Héroes del Cenepa Educational Unit located in the Pastaza province, Mera canton.
Methods: Quantitative approach, descriptive study design, cross-sectional, study population of 160 adolescents in the middle stage between the ages of 14 and 18, high school students of the Héroes del Cenepa Educational Unit.
Results: The findings for most relevant risk factors and warning signs of suicide were neglected personal appearance [24.38%] (Personal Domain), intrafamily violence - verbal and psychological [23.13%] (Family Domain); mistreatment at school (bullying) - sometimes [53.13%], the suicidal risk according to the Plutchik scale is 33.75% (Mild/moderate) and according to the Beck A. scale it is 67.50%. (Suicide Risk Predictor – moderate and severe hopelessness).
Conclusions: The investigated population presents predominant risk factors. Suicidal risk (Plutchik and Beck A. Scales) is high, it is recommended to implement health care programs to reduce the incidence of suicide.

By María Belén Padilla-Guerrero, Mónica Guadalupe Paredes-Garcés

2023-08-03 Original
Comparison of ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization versus anatomical landmarks in pediatric critically ill patients: a prospective study

Introduction: Central venous catheterization is a common procedure in critically ill pediatric patients, but its accurate and safe performance remains a challenge.
Objective: To determine if ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization improves the first-attempt success rate and reduces the risk of complications compared with the landmark-based approach in pediatric critically ill patients.
Methods: A prospective study was carried out that included 100 critical pediatric patients, divided into two groups: ultrasound-guided catheterization (n=43) and anatomical references (n=47). Demographic and clinical data were collected, variables of interest were recorded, and logistic regression analysis adjusted for patient age, access site, and operator was performed.
Results: Ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization showed a significantly higher first-attempt success rate compared with anatomic references (81.4% vs. 57.4%, p<0.05). In addition, a significant reduction in procedural complications was observed in the ultrasound-guided group compared to the anatomical reference group (4.7% vs. 12.8%, p<0.05).
Conclusions: The use of ultrasound as a guide improves the success rate in the first attempt and reduces the risk of complications during the procedure. These findings highlight the importance of considering ultrasound-guided catheterization as a preferred strategy in the management of critically ill pediatric patients requiring central venous access.

By Alfredo Carlos Rodríguez-Portelles, Arianna Maité Céspedes Rómulo, David Pascual Rojas Flores, Reynaldo Carvajal Choque, Francia Pérez Arellano, Evelin Resplandor Millan, Romer Guachichulca, Isaura Jaimes, Marielena Vivas Fernández

2023-08-19 Original
Knowledge of parents regarding post-vaccination reactions in children under 5 years of age

Introduction: Vaccination is an effective defense mechanism that effectively ensures immunity by stimulating the production of antibodies. Protects children from 14 serious childhood diseases. In addition, health personnel are in charge of providing information on post-vaccination reactions and home care.
Objective: to Determine the knowledge of parents regarding post-vaccination reactions in children under 5 years of age
Methodology: 70 parents of children under 5 years of age participate in the analysis. This study is based on a quantitative. The study will be descriptive. A questionnaire structured in two sections was used, the first part consists of 5 items for demographic and the second 30 questions that cover 4 dimensions.
Results: In general, parents consider that childhood vaccines protect their children from serious diseases, they admit the importance of the vaccination process for the health of others in the community. In addition, they are concerned about the safety and effectiveness of newer vaccines relative to older ones because they are wary of the testing and tracing time of vaccines.
Conclusion: Parents are willing to vaccinate their children, they demand more information and solid arguments to help them make safer decisions. The health professional must educate the population about post-vaccination reactions and home care.

By Diana Alejandra Carrera Jerez, Luis Geovanny Rojas Conde

2023-08-19 Original
Family coping with grief

Introduction: Due to the loss of a loved one, mourning occurs, considered as the process of coping and psychosocial reorganization that corresponds to a series of personal and family interactions due to the death of a human being.
Objective: to determine the family's coping with grief.
Method: the study was carried out from a quantitative approach, with a non-experimental, cross-sectional and descriptive design. The instrument used was the "Revised Texas Grief Inventory" adapted to Spanish by García García (2005). Which evaluates two dimensions: behavior in the past and current feelings, this was applied to 100 relatives of deceased patients from the Tisaleo canton.
Results: in the dimension of behaviors in the past, the definitive absence of a family member leaves emotional consequences that are difficult to overcome and not proceeding with alternative solutions leads to even deeper situations that affect their work, family and self-performance, by as in the dimension of current feelings, the pain of a death becomes more acute, because the environment for the mourners is not favorable and on many occasions they find relief in inappropriate resources.
Conclusions: family coping is the process that a person goes through after losing a relative or a loved one, which presents anxiety and depression.

By Dayana Lizbeth Tipán Pérez, Luis Geovanny Rojas Conde

2023-09-18 Original
Physiotherapists' experiences of clinical practice: A Phenomenological Study

Teaching physical therapists demonstrate in their clinical practice various attitudes and methods that contribute to the professional development of their students. The purpose of the study was to analyze the responses of the teaching physical therapist's experiences in relation to the clinical practice of the physical therapy student. Therefore, a qualitative study was carried out with a phenomenological approach in which an interview was conducted through a guide of semi-structured questions, using the Atlas.ti content analysis technique, to 5 teaching physical therapists with extensive experience in a clinical teaching institution. The results revealed that the category of teaching skills in evaluation obtained the highest number of citations, followed by the category of learning in the clinical setting. In conclusion, the clinical/teaching physical therapists perceived positively the change towards continuous improvement in their practices with students, despite limitations such as lack of standardization in practical activities.

By Jesús Alberto Soto Manrique, Eduardo Martín Garay Ugaz, Yolanda Josefina Huayta-Franco

2023-09-17 Original
Family Functionality and the Intervention of Nursing in Adolescents of an Educational Institution of an Area of Lima

Introduction: Family functionality is a set of interpersonal relationships of the adolescent, which need an emotional stability and the environment in which they can safely explore an unknown world, therefore.
Objective: to determine family functionality and nursing intervention in adolescents of an educational institution in an area of Lima.
Methods: It is a quantitative-descriptive, cross-sectional study, with a total population of 571 participants who answered a questionnaire of sociodemographic data and the family APGAR instrument.
Results: In the results, 303 (53.1%) of the adolescents have severe familial dysfunction, 155 (27.1%) moderate, 5 (0.9%) mild and 108 (18.9%) good family function.
Conclusions: It is concluded that family interventions should be carried out that allow family union and thus be able to improve the psycho-affective health of the adolescent.

By Lucia Asencios-Trujillo, Lida Asencios-Trujillo, Carlos La Rosa-Longobardi, Djamila Gallegos-Espinoza, Livia Piñas-Rivera, Rosa Perez-Siguas

2023-09-11 Original
Hematological alterations in farmers exposed to organophosphate pesticides

Introduction: Organophosphates (OP) are one of the most widely used types of pesticides in the agricultural sector, their purpose is the control and elimination of pests. However, their indiscriminate use and lack of precaution when handling them can become a health risk for farmers.
Objective: To determine hematological alterations in farmers who are part of the Artisanal Association for the Production of Agricultural and Livestock Goods of Píllaro (ABAPP) exposed to organophosphate pesticides.
Methods: A quantitative and observational study was carried out with univariate and bivariate analysis. The study population consisted of 64 farmers, aged between 25 and 60 years, who are part of the ABAPP, of whom 56.3% were women and 43.8% were men.
Results: The data obtained showed statistically significant values in relation to the time of exposure to OP, in leukocytosis, neutrophilia and monocytopenia; while, in relation to the use of personal protective equipment, significant values were reported with the increase in red blood cells, increase in hematocrit, increase in hemoglobin, leukocytosis, neutrophilia and monocytopenia.
Conclusions: Exposure to organophosphorus pesticides can cause health problems in agricultural workers.

By Francisco Poveda Paredes, Evelin Toapanta Toapanta, Victoria Cevallos Bonilla, Daniela Rosero Freire

2023-09-13 Original
Didactic capacity of the teacher in the achievement of clinical competencies in resident physicians in Lima

Introduction: Resident physicians daily demonstrate their clinical competencies in the performance of their duties in a hospital; however, the level of these can depend on many factors included in your training process.
Objective: To determine the didactic capacity of the teacher in the achievement of clinical competencies in resident physicians of a hospital in Lima, 2022.
Methods: The approach was quantitative, of a basic type, non-experimental design, causal correlation and cross section. The census population consisted of 102 resident physicians. Two questionnaires were used: one on the teaching capacity of the teacher and the other on clinical competencies in resident physicians. Descriptive statistics were used and, to verify the hypotheses, the Pseudo R squared test was used.
Results: A Nagerkerke coefficient of 28.5% was evidenced, which indicates the dependency of the achievement of clinical competencies with the teaching capacity of the teacher in resident physicians.
Conclusion: It is concluded that there is an incidence of 28.5% between the teaching capacity of the teacher in the achievement of clinical competencies in resident doctors with a level of direct correlation p<0.05.

By Nathali Cahuana Mallqui, Carlos Augusto Luy-Montejo, Yrene Cecilia Uribe-Hernández, Teresa de Jesús Campana Añasco, Daniel Angel Ramos Fuentes

2023-09-13 Original
Empathy in competencies of specific norms in Obstetrics students from Ica universities - 2022

Introduction: For over a century, educational policies have vigorously promoted competency-based education in higher education students.
Objective: It was proposed to determine the incidence of empathy in the competencies of specific norms of Obstetrics students at universities in Ica.
Methods: There was a quantitative approach, a non-experimental correlational-causal design; The sample consisted of 101 female students in the last year of the Faculty of Obstetrics. The instrument was the personal reactivity questionnaire (first variable) and, for the second variable, the observation technique and performance checklist.
Results: The results revealed that 67.33% of the students presented a low level of empathy; 58.4% had a low level of cognitive empathy; 75.2% had a low level of affective empathy; Regarding the competency standards, 86.14% did not comply with the competencies, of this, in the care of pregnant women and unborn children, 7.9% complied with them. In the dimension of caring for women and couples, 16.8% complied.
Conclusion: Empathy significantly affected the competencies of specific norms in students evaluated, suggesting the need to strengthen this soft skill to improve the competitiveness of future obstetric professionals.

By Nelly Alejandrina Pérez de la Cruz, Juana Yris Díaz-Mujica, Elizabeth Dany Araujo-Robles, Yanina Gallardo-Lolandes, Hilda Rocio Mendoza-Jimenez

2023-09-10 Original
Two-stage bilateral subthalamotomy for patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease

Introduction: in the world there is sufficient experience with functional surgery for Parkinson's disease using the subthalamic nucleus approach, but mainly with the use of deep brain stimulation. Less experience exists in the use of ablative methods.
Objective: to evaluate the therapeutic effect, refinement in surgical target localization and safety of bilateral subthalamic subthalamotomy in two surgical times for the treatment of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease.
Methods: observational, analytical, cross-sectional study at CIREN (Havana, Cuba) between January 2018 and December 2020, in 10 patients. Variables related to general characteristics of patients and surgeries, therapeutic effect of the procedure, refinement of surgical target localization and safety of surgeries were analyzed.
Results: the motor condition of the patients improved (p < 0.0001) both in the off stage (70.9%) and on stage (74.7%). Target localization refinement reduced the number of paths (5.3 ± 2 vs. 3.4 ± 0.5, p = 0.03) and surgical time (87.6 ± 40.7 min vs. 53.6 ± 13.5 min, p = 0.01). A total of 10 adverse events occurred.
Conclusions: the procedure used has a beneficial and safe therapeutic effect on the motor condition of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. The refinement of the localization of the surgical target allows a reduction in the number of paths and the surgical time.

By María Teresa Solomon Cardona, Julián Leonardo Gallo Rodríguez, Yordanka Ricardo de la Fé, Hector Julio Piñera-Castro, Juan Tejeiro Amador, Raúl José Macías González

2023-09-13 Original
Post-pandemic prevention strategies for burnout syndrome in Peruvian university teachers

Prevention strategies are methods aimed at helping, because it is a continuous process, which must be considered as an integral part of the educational process, especially to overcome the burnout syndrome. In the methodology, a qualitative approach was considered, the design was hermeneutic phenomenological. The population was made up of 9 participants who participated in the technical interview and in the instrument, a semi-structured interview, which makes it possible to delve deeper into the research topic. It is concluded that, for those interviewed, prevention strategies should not be seen as a static and delimited reality in their theory; it is dynamic and adaptive according to the educational context in which students and teachers live. It is decided that teachers, directors and education managers should consider prevention strategies as dynamic and adaptive according to the face-to-face or virtual educational context. They highlight the importance of training, training processes, continuous training, and the use of technological tools in a virtual context. The same ones that must contribute to the application of prevention strategies for students and must help the pedagogy of the teacher. These burnout syndrome prevention strategies consist of a prolonged response by the organism to stressful factors and are required to improve the preparation of the class, as well as the pedagogical, didactic and, above all, emotional processes.

By Elisa Roxana Dionisio Escalante, Jessica Paola Palacios Garay, Jenny Marianella Zavaleta Oliver, Carlos Oswaldo Venturo Orbegoso, Edgar Florian Damian Nuñez

2023-09-13 Original
Proposal for an algorithm for identification of dermatopathies in the neonatal period

The study of dermatopathies in newborns is understood as skin diseases or affections that are observed and affect newborns and have a diversity in form and severity according to their presentations, which are caused by infectious, environmental and genetic factors, so it is important to know the characteristics for immediate attention and prevention.The aim of the study is to propose an algorithm for the identification of dermatopathies in the neonatal period based on the infrequency or evaluation carried out by pediatricians or dermatologists in hospitals in the Ica region. The method responds to holistic projective research of an applied type that corresponds to the mixed approach of the socio-critical paradigm; The study sample comprised clinical histories and expert doctors. For the first, observation sheets were taken with the validity of the content and, for the experts, interviews and focus groups that allowed the elaboration of the proposals. The results showed the specific theoretical characteristics (observable manifestations) for each dermatopathy. In addition, its use will allow the doctor or specialist to detect the neonatal dermatopathy for better follow-up. It is concluded that the proposal deals with a structure in which it presented clinical characteristics or manifestations of each of the dermatopathies with the purpose of being used by professionals for their location and registration.

By Doris Fuster-Guillén, Jesús Neyra-Léon, Jesús Neyra-Díaz, Yolvi Ocaña-Fernández

2023-09-24 Original
Resection of the extravertebral portion of the filum terminale with posterior internal sphincterotomy, a surgical technique for managing chronic constipation and encopresis in children

Background: Constipation is a frequent digestive complaint in children and can be refractory to treatment in approximately 30% of patients. Etiologies that are linked to this pathology include rectal hyporeflexia, achalasia of the internal anal sphincter, and neurological disorders such as tight filum terminale syndrome. For these conditions, the resection of the extra vertebral portion of the filum terminale and posterior internal sphincterotomy has shown potential benefits for management.
Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study between 2020 and 2021. We collected data from 219 children's medical records at Saint Petersburg State Pediatric Hospital, Russia, that fulfilled the diagnostic criteria and were managed surgically. We analyze their demographic characteristics and clinical outcomes.
Results: We found that 83.6% (n=183) of participants showed improvement, while 16.4% (n=36) experienced no improvement or complications. Patients in the 16-17 age group had the highest proportion of lack of improvement or complications, with 12.8% and the 1-5 age group exhibited a 100% improvement rate. Male patients exhibited a decreased probability of experiencing complications in the postoperative period.
Conclusion: Resection of the extravertebral portion of the filum terminale with posterior internal sphincterotomy has shown potential benefits in managing chronic constipation and encopresis in pediatric patients. However, further research is warranted to investigate the benefits and risks of this surgical technique.

By Freddy Alexander Aldaz Vallejo, Victor Sebastian Encalada Vasconez, Johanna Mosquera Moscoso, Jennifer Carolina Martìnez, Pablo Javier Castillo Herrera

2023-09-11 Original
Use of alternative and complementary therapies in premenstrual syndrome

Introduction: premenstrual syndrome deals with a number of symptomatology which, although it is true, affects the daily life of the women who suffer from it more severely.
Objective: to analyze the efficacy of the use of alternative and complementary therapies for premenstrual syndrome.
Methods: we conducted a systematic review focused on information on alternative and complementary therapies for premenstrual syndrome.
Results: the use of alternative and complementary therapies such as phytotherapy, acupuncture, auriculotherapy, reflexology, yoga, aromatherapy have shown changes against premenstrual syndrome symptomatology such as mastalgia, headache, dizziness, vomiting, among others.
Conclusions: alternative and complementary therapies are used by women suffering from premenstrual syndrome as a first option in their treatment.

By Jennifer Rhamsay Toaquiza Passo, Fabiola Beatriz Chasillacta Amores

2023-12-13 Original
Loss of sensation and trophic lesions in the feet of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Introduction: Diabetic foot is one of the most common complications in patients with diabetes, and early diagnosis is crucial to carry out therapeutic interventions that prevent its progression to advanced or irreversible stages that generate changes in people's quality of life.
Objective: Identify the loss of protective sensitivity and trophic lesions in the feet of people living with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated at a health center in the Tuxtlas region, Veracruz.
Methods: Descriptive and cross-sectional study. The sampling was non-probabilistic for convenience in which 91 people participated. Information was collected on personal data, clinical data on podiatric characteristics, loss of foot protective sensitivity and presence of trophic lesions. Descriptive analysis was used in the SPSS statistical package.
Results: The average age was 52.59 years with a greater predominance in the group of 50 to 59 years. The foot disorders that occurred were calluses (65.9%), onychomycosis (65.9%) and pain (56%). Regarding the quantification of trophic lesions, 13.2% presented some degree of injury and 60.5% presented loss of protective sensitivity in at least one of the six points evaluated in the lower limbs.
Conclusions: In the present study, a low prevalence of trophic lesions was identified according to the Wagner scale, but a high prevalence of neuropathy defined by monofilament; in addition, there are podiatric characteristics that can favor the presence of ulcers such as dermal and morphological alterations of the participants.

By Gabriela Pucheta-Xolo, Víctor Manuel Tegoma-Ruiz, José Roberto Sánchez-Hernández, Alma Delia Santiago-Mijangos, Yun Sem Chiu-Cruz

2023-10-05 Original
Anxiety and Intervention of Nursing in Residents of a disadvantaged area in San Juan De Lurigancho

Introduction: Anxiety is or isnot one of the main factors that considerably alters the mental health of the person, where the feeling of fear in certain situations that can compromise their well-being, so the research objective is to determine anxiety and nursing intervention in residents of a disadvantaged area in San Juan de Lurigancho.
Methods: a quantitative, descriptive-transversal study, with a total population of 617 inhabitants in which they answered a questionnaire of sociodemographic aspects and the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale instrument.
Results: In their results it can be observed that the female sex presents dysfunctional anxiety 62.9% than the male sex 37.1%.
Conclusions: To minimize the risks involved in anxiety, strategies must be carried out that allow the person to maintain their mental health balanced and in turn identify situations that may compromise them and make them more vulnerable.

By Rosa Perez-Siguas, Hernan Matta-Solis, Eduardo Matta-Solis, Luis Perez-Siguas, Victoria Tacas-Yarcuri, Hernan Matta-Perez, Alejandro Cruzata-Martinez

2023-12-08 Original
Working conditions of the kinesiologists working in the Atacama region in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic

Introduction: The socio-health crisis generated by the COVID-19 pandemic highlights the importance of attending to the working conditions of health personnel in order to provide risks at work. Kinesiologists played a frontline role during the pandemic, which led to the modification of their activities and, at the same time, to the increased hiring of these professionals in health care services. Objective: To understand the working conditions of kinesiologists working in the Atacama region, in northern Chile, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: The qualitative study is based on the naturalistic paradigm, the tendency used is the grounded theory with a systematic design of Strauss and Corbin J. With two levels of open and axial analysis. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted with kinesiologists, ten women and ten men. Results: The analysis allowed establishing eight predominant categories: poor working conditions, poor employment conditions, attitudes and feelings, professionalism, facilitators of working conditions, relevance of the professional role, good employment conditions and lack of knowledge of concepts of employment and working conditions. Conclusion: The working conditions of kinesiologists are deficient; the informal contractual situation without access to social security stands out, constituting an element of precarious employment and exposure to psychosocial risks as predominant elements of working conditions that are important to address in order to ensure the safety and quality of the services provided by the professionals who provide care.

By Ana Calle Carrasco, Yalie Avalos Mena, Marta Campillay Galleguillos, Belén Toledo Tapia, Gloria Peña Oliva

2023-10-25 Original
Quality of Life in Hypertensive University students Attending a Health Facility for Care in North Lima

Introduction: Hypertension is one of the most common problems where the quality of life of the person suffering from this disease is compromised, altering their health well-being in the short and long term, so the research objective is to determine the quality of life in hypertensive people who come to a health facility for their care in North Lima.
Methods: It is a quantitative, descriptive-cross-sectional study, consisting of 150 participants who answered a questionnaire on sociodemographic aspects and the mini-questionnaire on quality of life in hypertension.
Results: In the results, females have a better quality of life than males.
Conclusions: It is concluded that educational counseling about the disease should be provided to people who are diagnosed with it.

By Djamila Gallegos-Espinoza, Carlos La Rosa-Longobardi, Lucia Asencios-Trujillo, Livia Piñas-Rivera, Lida Asencios-Trujillo, Hernan Matta-Solis

2023-10-30 Original
Life Skills in Adolescent Alcohol Use: A Literature Review

Introduction: Alcohol consumption is a public health problem, and in adolescents it is recognized as a socially accepted practice and an important vehicle for socialization among their peers. On the other hand, training in life skills has proven to be effective in preventing the initiation and/or reduction of alcohol consumption in the early stages of life.
Objective: Analyze the available scientific literature on the effects of life skills and alcohol consumption in adolescents.
Methods: Literature review carried out with the methodology proposed by Arksey and O'Malley. The databases used were; Virtual Health Library (VHL), SciELO, Google Scholar, PubMed and EBSCOhost. Different combinations were executed with the support of Boolean logical operators, and inclusion and exclusion criteria were established. Likewise, the Joanna Briggs Institute checklist was used for the selection and discrimination of articles.
Results: 10 studies that indicate the relationship between the study variables were analyzed. The most worked life skills were; the emotional component (attention, clarity, self-regulation and emotional repair), self-efficacy to resist pressure, self-esteem, risk perception, attitudes and beliefs, and consumption intention.
Conclusions: An important panorama of the characteristics of the interventions is discovered, with this, opportunities to replicate designs and implementation of interventions are proposed through the management of components that integrate training in life skills that have shown effectiveness in the face of the problem of alcohol consumption in adolescents.

By Jesús Antonio Zamorano-Espero, José Manuel Herrera-Paredes

2023-10-23 Original
Attitudes of health professionals regarding euthanasia

Euthanasia or good death is a medical procedure that causes the death of a patient with chronic and incurable diseases. In Ecuador, despite having high rates of chronic and terminal diseases, Euthanasia is not legal; This is because the Constitution of the Republic guarantees the right to a dignified life. The objective of this research was to determine the attitudes towards euthanasia on the part of health professionals. We worked under a quantitative approach and descriptive research, where the questionnaire for evaluating attitudes towards euthanasia (CAE) was applied to 110 teachers from the Medicine, Nursing, Nutrition, Clinical Psychology, Laboratory and Physiotherapy Careers of the Faculty of Life Sciences. Health of the Technical University of Ambato. The results reflected that the majority of teachers accept the practice of euthanasia, the Nursing, Medicine and Clinical Laboratory careers have an incidence greater than 60%. 68.18% of teachers are not influenced by ethical, moral and religious aspects, and the use of palliative care. 50.91% of teachers feel motivated to apply euthanasia in order to reduce pain, physical deterioration and suffering. 53.64% support euthanasia due to family issues that affect the economy and well-being. Finally, through Spearman's Rho coefficient, it was determined that there is a direct relationship between the professional study career and the acceptance of euthanasia.

By Kerlin Damiana Villamarin Díaz, Verónica del Pilar Cantuñi Carpio

2023-10-07 Original
Proposal for an instrument to audit the occupational safety and health management system in Venezuela: Version 9

Introduction: Occupational Health Policies in Venezuela require the efficient operation of the Occupational Health and Safety Management System; For this reason, an instrument is necessary to audit it and apply corrective measures in those aspects that do not comply with labor regulations.
Objective: Evaluate the effectiveness of a proposal for an instrument to audit occupational health and safety management systems (SG-SST) in Venezuela.
Methods: A field investigation, Feasible Project type, of evaluative level, was carried out, applying a qualitative-quantitative methodology. The data collection techniques and instruments used (document review, interview with key subjects, discussion supported by a recorder and two surveys) allowed an exploration of the problem in the current context.
Results: They reflect the lack of a normative document that serves as a guide to the work centers to carry out these audits, which led to the preparation of this proposal; and its implementation detected deficient SG-SST as a result of weaknesses in the conformation of the Occupational Health and Safety Services, Prevention Delegates and the Occupational Health and Safety Committees, leading to the lack of the Health and Safety Program in Labor, element through which the SG-SST becomes operational, this deficiency being greater in the Public Sector (80%) than in the Private Sector (14.3%).
Conclusions: It is proposed to take this instrument as a reference to carry out the audits of the SG-SST in Venezuela and thus contribute to the reduction of Occupational Accidents and Illnesses.

By Gladys Mago

2023-10-14 Original
Nursing intervention for physical mobility in older adults

Introduction: Older adults go through a series of physiological changes, making the loss of physical, psychological and cognitive functions common in this population, mostly causing dependence to perform activities in basic daily life. This condition makes older adults fragile and prone to have any type of fall leading to disability, increase the number of hospitalizations and even death, therefore, the execution of exercises is the best prevention tool.
Objective. To determine the effect of nursing intervention on the deterioration of physical mobility in older adults.
Methods: Quantitative approach, quasi-experimental design with correlational scope. The population consisted of 70 older adults, the sample was chosen by inclusion and exclusion criteria, data collection was by the Barthel index and the battery (SPPB); subsequently, data tabulation was performed using the SPSS statistical program. The research was framed within the bioethical aspects established in the Helsinki declaration.
Results: Older adults prone to frailty are women, who improved their condition from frail to pre-frail, by means of the Otago exercise program.
Conclusions: Nursing interventions is of utmost importance as care plans can be designed, ensuring a better quality of life.

By Daniela Alejandra Romero Mejía, Valeria Isabel Espín López

2023-10-17 Original
Continuous Glucose Monitoring – offering empowerment and self-care agency for type 1 diabetes patients

Background: Technologies have increasing availability and significance in health care. Self-care tools are promoting “positive medicalization” by enabling patients to reclaim their individual agency in health care. In Type 1 Diabetes treatment, health technology is prominent - Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) has been developed to facilitate management of the disease, while easing the emotional burden.
Objective: The objective of the study was to show how technology-led self-care affects individuals, and more specifically, their relationship with their doctor, when they gain agency over their own health care.
Methods: This paper draws on a quantitative study using data from the Jaeb Center for Health Research (USA); it examines the effects of CGM on patients’ everyday lives right after starting the use, and after 6 and 12 months of use. The data also shed light on the role of CGM in reshaping patient-doctor relationships. ANOVA tests and multiple linear regression analysis were conducted (n=451, female: 55%, male: 45%, age: mean 25,04, SD 15.8).
Results: The use of the CGM gives freedom to users, but the CGM causes hassles in their daily lives after 6 months of use. Socio-demographic factors (education level, gender, age) did not play a significant role in the changing patient–doctor relationship.
Conclusion: Despite the burden technology may cause, CGM seems beneficial by easing diabetes management. Regarding the patient-doctor relationship, users seemed unaware of changes despite the great gain in agency. This case offers a way to shift the focus to a more moderate critique of medicalized technologies.

By Terhi Kangas, Ricardo Ayala

2023-12-09 Original
Architectural needs in housing for people with disabilities

Housing represents encounter, memories and security, but for people with disabilities some of its characteristics can become barriers to full use. If disability is considered to be a poor relationship between environment and capacity. Housing may be inaccessible for this group of people. Based on the components of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, of the World Health Organization, and the application of 16 semi-structured interviews, this research analyzed the architectural barriers and identified the needs faced by people with Alzheimer, Parkison, blindness, children on the autism spectrum, elderly people, wheelchair users and people with deafness in relation to the performance of tasks and general demands, communication, mobility, self-care and domestic life inside the dwellings. Among the spaces with the greatest barriers are the bathroom and the kitchen for most of the cases analyzed. On the other hand, various strategies were observed that the interviewees use to cope with these barriers and increase their well-being or reduce the risks in the activities of daily living inside the dwellings.

By Claudia Valderrama-Ulloa, Viviana Bucarey, Juan Pablo Marchetti

2023-12-06 Original
Echoes of Resilience: Navigating Life’s currents through Hemodialysis - Lived Experience

Chronic Kidney Disease is an emerging Public Health problem impacting the patients overall wellbeing. Prevalence is increasing globally. Hemodialysis being the major treatment modality it imposes great challenges among patients. This study explored the lived experience of Quality of life of patients undergoing Hemodialysis. Phenomenological approach was used among 12 patients undergoing Hemodialysis to explore the experiences of Quality of Life between May 2022 and December 2022. Participants were purposively chosen. Semi structured interview was used to collect the data. Interview was video recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was done. Three major themes emerged from the interviews including Physical, Psychological and Social experiences. Various subthemes were identified ranging from physical exhaustion to financial crisis. The exploration of inner being of patients undergoing hemodialysis and assisting them psychosocial interventions will be beneficial in improving their Quality of Life.

By M Parameswari, VH Hema, Avudaiappan Seethalakshmi, Sathiya Priya Viswanathan

2023-11-27 Original
A look at phonetics and the pragmatic component of language from a speech therapy point of view

Nowadays we can find several alterations in the language that gives the guideline to deepen in the subject to approach, for the importance that is conferred to the speech therapy as science, that extends its services to the public health and pedagogy, the speech therapy in the two sectors pursues the purpose of raising the quality of the services, join efforts to achieve an integral citizen in tune with the current demands of the society. Different methods were used from the beginning to the end of the scientific contribution, from the theoretical level: analytical-synthetic, historical-logical, inductive-deductive, from the empirical level: observation, documentary study, speech therapy exploration. These methods made it possible to determine theoretical elements that support the research, evidencing the existence of the problem addressed and its possible ways of solution. For this reason, the scientific problem posed is how to prepare speech therapists on phonetics and the pragmatic component of language from the speech therapy care.

By Yaquelin Arzola-Castillo

2023-12-16 Original
Bibliometric analysis of the scientific production on crowdsourcing in health

Introduction: online collaborative decision-making processes in health have developed over time and surpass the academic field. The objective of the research is to analyze the scientific production on crowdsourcing in health during the period 2019 - 2023. Methods: the research was developed under the quantitative paradigm approach, from a retrospective - descriptive and bibliometric study. A systematic search was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Results: the search was conducted in the SCOPUS database and 289 research results on crowdsourcing in health in the selected period were identified. Of the 289 research studies analyzed, 60% are original articles. The area of knowledge that stands out the most is medicine with 159 research papers. A total of 162 journals were identified in which the research was published, the most cited being Translational Psychiatry with 364 citations. In addition, the institutions with the highest representation are The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine with 23 and 17 researches respectively. The most relevant author is Tucker, J.D. with 17 publications. The country that published the most was the United States with 122 publications. Conclusions: It is concluded that crowdsourcing in health as an online collaborative process between institutions, specialists, patients or experts in the health sector allows solving research problems, based on tasks directed by the crowdsourcing administrator, has developed over time and surpasses the academic field.

By Carlos Alberto Gómez-Cano, Juan Carlos Miranda-Passo, René Ramírez Fernández

2023-10-20 Original
Analysis of the perception of health professionals regarding the incorporation of emerging technologies in their practice

Introduction: Healthcare is currently in the midst of a technology-driven revolution. Emerging technologies (ETs) are disrupting the practice of healthcare professionals in ways that once seemed futuristic, but are now an everyday reality in clinics and hospitals around the world.
Objective: To analyze the perception of health professionals regarding the incorporation of emerging technologies in their practice.
Methods: It is a quantitative, descriptive, non-experimental, cross-sectional study, whose sample was 107 health professionals who work in different health centers in Lima. The survey technique was used and the instrument was the questionnaire.
Results: The participants perceived the incorporation and use of TE in their practice by 63.55% (68) at a moderate level, 20.56% (22) reported a high level, while 15.89% indicated a low level.
Conclusions: It was possible to specify a moderate level in the incorporation and use of TE, suggesting an intermediate position in technological adoption in medical care. This provides a solid foundation for future advances and improvements in the implementation of TE in medical practice.

By Manuel Silva Infantes, Juan Manuel Sánchez Soto, Milagros Amparo Astete Montalvo, José Leonor Ruiz Nizama, Leonardo Velarde Dávila, Roberto Carlos Dávila-Morán, Dimna Zoila Alfaro Quezada, Alexander Frank Pasquel Cajas

2023-12-06 Original
Exploring the associations between Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetic Retinopathy: Prevention and Management by focus on Machine Learning Technique

Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus, a disorder impacting insulin production and utilization, led to elevated blood sugar levels. Immune system assaults on insulin-producing pancreas cells caused Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, while Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus affected glucose processing, predominantly in adults but also observed in children. Unmanaged diabetes resulted in varied health issues including heart disease, kidney damage, nerve impairment, and diabetic retinopathy, a major cause of adult blindness. Objective: To prevent diabetic retinopathy through glycemic control, achieved via management, lifestyle choices, screenings, treatments, education, and awareness. Machine learning techniques like transfer learning, ensemble learning, CNN-MNIST, and multiscale approaches showed promise in detection and diagnosis. Monitoring blood sugar and eye exams were vital for early retinopathy treatment. Result: DR risk is elevated in those with positive complications like nephropathy, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, foot ulcers and HbA1C levels ≥6.8%. Retinal imaging aids diagnosis and monitoring of ocular diseases like DR, utilizing processed monochrome images for structural analysis. Method: involved observing NPDR, MPDR via eye exams, measuring glucose, visual acuity, and retinal thickness. Retinal imaging aided ocular disease diagnosis, utilizing processed images for analysis. Conclusion: Diabetes prevalence rose globally, projected to affect 800 million adults by 2050. High India rates emphasized healthcare need, especially in remote areas, addressing diabetic retinopathy and early symptom awareness.

By Sirajudeen Ameerjohn, Palaniappan Senthilnathan, Venkatachalam Ilayaraja, Ginnela Gopichand

2023-12-09 Original
A Quasi-Experimental Study on the Effectiveness of Early Interventional Techniques on Self-Esteem Social Skills and Core Academic Achievements among School Childrenwith Specific Learning Disabilities in Selected Schools at Chennai

Background: Specific learning disability (SLD) as it is known is an aberration in the underpinning psychological process that exhibits itself in the flawed ability to think, listen, talk, read, and write. It can also be connected to spelling difficulties, mathematical derivations, and calculations. It tends to be related to cognitive impairments or brain injuries spurred by neurological disarray, aphasia, or additional problems.
Aim: This specific review aims to summarise interventional techniques, stability of individual self-esteem, other societal-related skills, academic skills, and others among children with SLD. It is necessary to determine which interventional strategies can be implemented to assist kids with SLD issues identified in schools or academic centres to enhance their self-esteem, social skills and academic achievements.
Methods: The articles were searched in databases like PubMed, Web of Science, Psyc INFO, and CINAHL with Boolean like “specific learning disabilities children” AND “intervention” OR “Self-esteem”, “Social skills” AND “Academic achievements”.
Results: In the empirical studies, five objects were identified as appropriate for the research. Many types of interventions have been used to assess appreciation or liking for self-esteem, social skills, and vital academic skills among children of SLD.Children who underwent an experimental program receiving the Feuerstein Instrumental Enrichment Program reflected an increase in some of the cognitive functions. The student’s ability to execute data processing approaches during their academic activities hasimproved when the ability to recall, perceive, schedule, and executive intervention system is combined with other quadrant paradigms. Significant advancement was noticed in self-esteem, social skills and academic excellence. All these were possible due to a positive approach to the intervention.
Conclusions: In the evaluation review, the researcher highlights how children with SLD perform better and that the positive psychological interventions examined have entirely eradicated all of their adverse effects. In this regard, there is a requirement to provide inclusive education for kids with Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD) and for persevering with SLD-related experimentation procedures.

By A Arockia Selvi, VH Hema

2023-10-26 Original
Lifestyle and nursing intervention during the COVID-19 pandemic in teachers of older adults in North Lima

Introduction: The lifestyle worldwide changed drastically in the elderly product of the pandemic, where their routine activities were modified because of it generating problems in their health, so the objective of the research is to determine the lifestyle in teachers of older adults and the intervention of nursing during the COVID-19 pandemic in North Lima.
Methods: It is a quantitative, descriptive-cross-sectional study, with a population of 206 participants over 60 years of age who answered a questionnaire on sociodemographic aspects and the FANTASTICO instrument.
Results: The results showed that older adults aged 60 to 90 years, 10.2% have a low lifestyle and 19.9% have a fantastic lifestyle.
Conclusions: In conclusion, it should be done to provide educational counseling on the management of lifestyle at home for older adults, since this will allow them to maintain their healthy lifestyle.

By Livia Piñas-Rivera, Carlos La Rosa-Longobardi, Lida Asencios-Trujillo, Djamila Gallegos-Espinoza, Lucia Asencios-Trujillo, Rosa Perez-Siguas

2023-10-07 Original
Impact of the implementation of a combo of measures for the prevention of pneumonias associated with mechanical ventilation

Introduction: Mechanical Ventilator Associated Pneumonia (MAP - MRA) is one of the most frequent healthcare associated infections (HAI) in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). By definition, ventilator-associated pneumonias (VAP) must have developed more than 48 hours after intubation of the patient.
Objective: To evaluate the impact of the implementation of the combo of measures for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonias in an adult Covid Critical Care Unit of a private sanatorium in the city of San Miguel de Tucumán, province of Tucumán in the period April 2021 to November 2022.
Methods: A descriptive, quantitative, field, observational and prospective cross-sectional study was designed. A total of 456 observations were included in the study.
Results: Good responses were obtained in relation to this measure. Although there were not satisfactory responses in all months, with each analysis more criteria were applied at the time of evaluating the ventilated patient. Overall compliance with the measures became stronger as of September 2021, having achieved 100% adherence during 3 consecutive months in March, April, May 2022 and later in September and October 2022.
Conclusions: it was possible to identify that the most difficult measures to comply with were those that are more related to a medical indication and evaluation, such as the promotion of NIV, daily suspension of sedation and the spontaneous ventilation test. Despite not yet reaching the goal of 95% adherence in a sustained manner, the rates of ventilator-associated pneumonias fluctuated downward as the measures implemented were complied with.

By Sabrina Bulacio

2023-10-26 Original
Quality of Life in the Administrative workers of the education of a UGEL in North Lima

Introduction: The quality of life in the elderly is one of the problems that today in our country is most violated, since older adults do not have the basic needs so that they can have an optimal quality of life for their health, so the objective of the study is to determine the quality of life in the administrative workers of the education of a UGEL in North Lima.
Methods: It is a quantitative, descriptive-transversal study, with a total population of 122 older adults who solved a questionnaire of sociodemographic data and the instrument for the evaluation of quality of life.
Results: In their results, 13.1% (n=16) of older adults have poor quality of life, 73% (n=89) moderately good quality of life and 13.9% (n=17) good quality of life.
Conclusions: In conclusion, a prioritization should be made in older adults with respect to their quality of life in order to identify their needs and improve their health with family support and in turn with counseling by health professionals.

By Carlos La Rosa-Longobardi, Lucia Asencios-Trujillo, Lida Asencios-Trujillo, Djamila Gallegos-Espinoza, Livia Piñas-Rivera, Hernan Matta- Solis

2023-10-05 Original
Anxiety in Pregnant Women during the COVID-19 Pandemic who go to a Hospital for their care in Lima

Introduction: Pregnancy is one of the stages where women are affected by factors that alter their mental health, one of them anxiety, due to physiological and vital changes during their pregnancy, therefore, the objective of the study is to determine anxiety in pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic who come to a hospital for their care in Lima.
Methods: It is a quantitative, descriptive-transversal study, made up of 660 pregnant women in the study, with the questionnaire of sociodemographic aspects and the anxiety scale as a trait and state.
Results: The results show that 13.5% have high anxiety, 84.1% medium anxiety and 2.4% low anxiety.
Conclusions: In conclusion, continuous monitoring of pregnant women should be carried out virtually or in person as a priority of attention.

By Brian Meneses-Claudio, Juan Saberbein-Muñoz, Maria Salinas-Cruz, Teresa Quesada-Aramburu, Elias Mejia-Mejia, Francis Díaz-Flores, Enrique Lee Huamaní, Melissa Yauri-Machaca

2023-10-07 Original
Implementation of protocol to reduce surgical site infections in arthroplasty with hip prosthesis.

Introduction: A surgical site infection (SSI) is a type of SSI that occurs after surgery in the area of the body where surgery is performed, involves the skin, tissues and organs and implant material, and has signs and symptoms of infection. The prevention of SSI should be a priority element for surgical services and health centers where preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative risk should be considered.
Objective: To analyze the impact of the implementation of a protocol to reduce the incidence of surgical site infection in hip prosthesis arthroplasties, with the implementation of a protocol for ES decolonization and treatment of infections prior to surgery.
Methods: An experimental type study was conducted, in which a pre-surgical protocol was applied, with a multidisciplinary team to reduce total hip prosthesis SSIs, comparing the pre-implementation period, from January to December 2017, with the period from January 2018 to December 2021.
Results: the rate of SSI in the pre-implementation period was 22 % (10 cases), in the period that the intervention was performed 3% (2 cases). Disease motivating surgery: hip fracture: 50%, Osteoarthrosis: 49 %, hip dysplasia: 1%.
Conclusions: In this study, the intervention was positive, a statistically significant reduction in the rate of SSI was found in the period after the implementation of the protocol with greater adherence to pre-surgical bathing, and the performance of SA decolonization, as well as hospital stay as a protective factor.

By Rosa Gerez

2023-12-09 Original
Intention to use pre-exposure prophylaxis in men who have sex with men in Chile: a view from the planned behavior theory

Introduction: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) effectively prevents HIV in men who have sex with men (MSM). Chile recently incorporated PrEP as a strategy against HIV/AIDS. Despite its effectiveness, worldwide PrEP utilization among MSM is low. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is one of the most popular psychosocial models used to predict and explain sexual risk behaviors.
Objective: To analyze the intention to use PrEP among MSM using the TPB in Chile.
Methods: 183 MSM were recruited online. The TPB constructs (attitude, subjective norms, behavioral control, and intention to use) were measured in addition to knowledge variables, sociodemographic aspects, and sexual risk behaviors. We use linear regression models to analyze the relationship between intention to use and other variables.
Results: The perception of favorable social norms (B=0.356 p<0.01), higher perception of behavioral control (B=0.4 p<0.01), and positive PrEP attitudes (B=0.189 p<0.01) were significantly related to intention to use PrEP. Knowledge, the presence of sexual ri.sk behaviors, and sociodemographic variables were not associated with intention to use PrEP.
Conclusion: The TPB contributes to understanding the intention to use PrEP in MSM in Chile.

By Camilo Andrés Silva-Sánchez, Víctor Pedrero Castillo

2023-10-14 Original
State of the art and theoretical framework regarding student research in the regional and local context, with emphasis on health sciences and nursing students.

Higher education in health has always emphasized the development of knowledge, skills and attitudes; when, in the modern world, we must not only educate our competitiveness, but also enhance our ability to adapt to change, generate new knowledge and constantly improve our performance. Scientific research is increasingly related to the experience of students in their work performance and their interaction with the environment, so that the acquisition of knowledge is not independent of their activity. The research groups contribute to the formation of students in teamwork and interdisciplinary approach to knowledge. Scientific research is rigorous, and universities should promote it, for which the research seedbeds are a good way to obtain diagnoses of our reality, and proposals in accordance with the needs of the environment to modify it. The seedbeds are spaces in which a tutor and his students are present in order to create a learning community, and constitute a training strategy to promote research in multiple fields of knowledge, and are potentially applicable and useful in the area of higher education in health. The work that is developed in the seedbeds from an individual or collective appearance confirms a mutual benefit, which includes the actors or members of the seedbed, the institution, the network and society.

By Carlos Oscar Lepez, Irene Amelia Simeoni

2023-11-29 Original
Community Health Workers and mHealth: adoption of strategies for the prevention of cervical cancer in Argentina

Introduction: The ATICA strategy was a multicomponent mHealth intervention based on sending SMS messages to HPV+ women to promote triage cytology. After 60 days, an email and a SMS message were also sent to the Community Health Worker (CHW) to visit women who had not attended triage.
Aim: To analyze the perceptions of CHWs about barriers and facilitators of the implementation of the multicomponent intervention and their intention to adopt it.
Methods: We evaluated the implementation of the intervention using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) and RE-AIM framework. CHWs were asked to complete an anonymous, self-administered survey to evaluate their intention to adopt the intervention and to identify barriers and facilitators. We measured the association between intention to adopt the ATICA strategy and CFIR constructs. We used IBM SPSS software to calculate the chi-square and evaluate associations.
Results: Of the 221 CHWs in the ATICA study, 197 completed the survey. 78.3% of them would adopt the strategy in their work without differences between sociodemographic profiles or according to familiarity with phone use. The intention to adopt ATICA was higher among those who perceived it as a relative advantage (81% vs. 62.5%; p=0.04) and among those who found it easy to register phone numbers (81.8% vs. 64.3%; p=0.04). 98.3% stated that strategies were needed to expand triage coverage in the province.
Conclusion: The high intention to adopt the ATICA strategy among CHWs will contribute to the future scaling-up of the intervention.

By Victoria Sánchez Antelo, Melisa Paolino, Silvina Arrossi

2023-10-05 Original
Level of Fear due to the COVID-19 Pandemic in Residents of the Los Olivos District of North Lima

Introduction: Fear is one of the events that compromises the mental health of the person during the COVID-19 pandemic, therefore, the research objective is to determine the level of fear due to the COVID-19 pandemic in residents of the district of Los Olivos de Lima Norte.
Methods: It is a quantitative and cross-sectional study, with a total population of 118 participants who answered a questionnaire on sociodemographic aspects and the scale of fear of COVID-19.
Results: In their results we can observe that 38.1% (45 participants) have high levels of fear, 45.8% (54 participants) medium level and 16.1% (19 participants) low levels of fear.
Conclusions: In conclusion, necessary actions must be taken to take care of mental health from a comprehensive care in the population.

By Brian Meneses-Claudio, Ann Chaname-Marin, Juan Saberbein-Muñoz, Maria Salinas-Cruz, Teresa Quesada-Aramburu

2023-11-17 Original
Clinical and epidemiological characteristics and frequent symptomatology of patients with urinary tract infections in a General Hospital in Paraguay during the year 2022

Introduction: Urinary tract infections (UTI) are a global health problem affecting all ages.
Objective: The general objective of the present study focused on determining the clinical, epidemiological characteristics and the most frequent symptoms of patients with UTI in a General Hospital of Paraguay during the year 2022.
Methods: The clinical histories of patients who met the inclusion criteria were reviewed. Data were processed using Excel® and descriptive statistical techniques were applied.
Results: Out of 33 pediatric patient records. The 27.27% had some comorbidity, with bronchial hyperreactivity being the most frequent 6.06%. Regarding previous urinary tract infections, 90.91% did not have them. Regarding the germs isolated in the infections, 87.88% had no isolated germ, while 6.06% had E. coli and another 6.06% had K. pneumoniae. The most frequent clinical manifestations were vomiting with 33.33%, followed by decreased urination 21, 21% and inappetence with 24.24%.
Conclusions: Few patients had any comorbidity, with bronchial hyperreactivity being the most frequent. Regarding previous urinary tract infections, most of them did not have them. Regarding the germs isolated in the infections, most of them did not present isolated germs, while in few patients E. coli and others K. pneumoniae were isolated. The most frequent clinical manifestations were vomiting, followed by decreased urination and inappetence.

By María Leticia Marín Mundo, Telmo Raul Aveiro-Róbalo

2023-10-26 Original
Fear of the pandemic of the new variant of COVID-19 in the population of the Puente Piedra district in North Lima

Introduction: Fear is one of the perceptions that respond to how vulnerable a person is to a situation of risk of contagion by COVID-19 and compromises their well-being, so its research objective is to determine the fear of pandemic due to the new variant of COVID - 19 in the population of the Puente Piedra district in North Lima, Methods: It is a quantitative, non-experimental, descriptive, cross-sectional study, with a total population of 577 participants, who answered a virtual survey with sociodemographic data and the COVID-19 fear scale, Results: In its results, we observe that in the population of the district of Puente Piedra, 82 (14.2%) presents a low effect on fear of COVID - 19, 260 (45.1%) a moderate effect on fear of COVID - 19 and 235 (40.7%) a high effect on fear of COVID - 19, Conclusions: Therefore, it is concluded that the negative emotional charge due to the fear of COVID - 19 considerably affects the mental health of the population.

By Yrene Uribe-Hernandez, Brian Meneses-Claudio, Juan Saberbein-Muñoz, Maria Salinas-Cruz, Teresa Quesada-Aramburu

2023-10-20 Original
Impact of remote work on the occupational health of healthcare workers during the Covid-19 pandemic

Introduction: Since the appearance of Covid-19, remote work was implemented in different occupations on a global scale, aiming to continue with the development of activities. In this sense, occupational health was affected in different ways, especially in the case of health workers.
Objective: Analyze the impact of remote work on the occupational health of healthcare workers during the Covid-19 pandemic.
Method: The study had a quantitative approach, non-experimental design, and correlational scope. There was a sample of 35 health professionals from a public institution in Lima, Peru. The questionnaire had 28 questions, with a Likert-type scale for the answers.
Results: The participants expressed that there is a 45.7% very good level of remote work and 37.1% a regular level of occupational health. In addition, the existence of a moderate negative correlation between remote work and occupational health was verified, with r=-0.516 and sig<0.001.
Conclusions: A very good level of perception of remote work was obtained, but a regular level in occupational health. In addition, it was verified that remote work has a negative impact on the occupational health of health workers, in the context of the Covid-19 crisis. This serves as a foundation for future emergencies as well as improving the adoption of remote work and its impact on occupational health.

By Roberto Carlos Dávila-Morán, Rafael Alan Castillo-Sáenz, Alfonso Renato Vargas-Murillo, Leonardo Velarde Dávila, José Leonor Ruiz Nizama, Dimna Zoila Alfaro Quezada, Carla Giuliana Guanilo Pareja, Juan Manuel Sánchez Soto, Renzo Fidel Pasquel Cajas, Veronica Tomasa Cajas Bravo

2023-11-05 Original
Characterization of patients and measures implemented during the pandemic in a high complexity hospital in Argentina: an analysis from a nursing perspective

Introduction: the COVID-19 pandemic has left a deep mark all over the world. In the case of Argentina, the situation was no different, and this article seeks to characterize both the patients and the measures implemented in a high complexity Hospital in the country, from a nursing-centered perspective.

Methods: an observational, longitudinal and prospective study was designed, which allowed the systematic and continuous collection of information on patients. Data collection techniques used included participant and non-participant observation (through clinical histories and procedures) and interviews with patients.

Results: regarding the characteristics of the patients studied, the results were as follows: of the 372 patients analyzed, 140 presented suspicion of COVID-19, while 223 confirmed to be infected. In relation to the gender of the affected patients, it was observed that the percentage of female patients was slightly higher than that of male patients. When analyzing the percentages by age range of the patients with positive results for COVID-19, differences were found among them. Likewise, notable disparities were identified between men and women who suffered from the disease. In the age group 0-99 years, the incidence was higher in men than in women, while this trend was reversed from the age of 61 years onwards.

Conclusions: In general terms, the Coronavirus pandemic represents a critical challenge for health institutions, requiring the reorganization of services, spaces and policies. In addition, protocols and procedures should be established to cover all areas of care, as well as to ensure the adequate supply of material and human resources, considering the possibility of leave due to contagion.

By Liliana Broggi, Juan Kemmerer, Cristina Bandriwskyj, Alejandro Fernández, Cecilia Gangoni, Víctor Hugo Laura

2023-11-01 Original
Assessment of the level of nutrition knowledge in nursing university students

Introduction: Knowledge about nutrition in nursing university students is a topic of great significance in the education of future healthcare professionals, as they are the ones who provide support and education to patients in matters related to diet and nutrition.
Objective: To assess the level of knowledge about nutrition in nursing university students from a public university in Peru.
Methods: A quantitative approach was employed, utilizing a non-experimental research design of a cross-sectional descriptive nature. The sample consisted of 175 students who were administered the Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire, an instrument with appropriate metric properties.
Results: It was found that among the nursing students, 40% had a low level of knowledge about nutrition, while 37.7% demonstrated a level considered moderate, and 22.3% exhibited a high level of nutritional knowledge. Furthermore, it was observed that the level of knowledge about nutrition was significantly associated with both the students' gender and the year of their studies (p<0.05).
Conclusions: Nursing university students from a public university in Peru were characterized by having low levels of knowledge about nutrition. Therefore, it is necessary to review and update the curriculum of the Nursing program to incorporate nutrition courses in a more comprehensive and up-to-date manner. This will ensure that students receive a strong foundation in this field from the beginning of their studies.

By Edwin Gustavo Estrada-Araoz, Maribel Mamani-Roque

2023-12-09 Original
Sociocultural aspects that influence the perception of occupational health and safety of the artisanal mining population in the Atacama region, Chile

Introduction: Artisanal miners have developed a traditional trade with characteristic socio-cultural aspects, associated with low socioeconomic status, occupational risk and social vulnerability. Since access to health is a fundamental human right, we seek to demonstrate the importance of considering cultural and social aspects in this population as a determinant of their health and access to health care. Objective: The aim of this study was to understand the influence of sociocultural elements on the perception of health and safety at work of people working in artisanal mining in the Atacama region, Chile. Method: A focused ethnographic qualitative study was carried out, where the social and cultural context of the subjects was explored by accessing their experiences, cultural environments and other elements that influence their behavior in relation to occupational health and safety. Results: Labor practices permeated by customs and traditions linked to intergenerational transfer were identified as the main influential sociocultural elements. Precariousness in employment linked to poor working conditions constitute predominant social elements in the subjects. Conclusion: This study contributes to the knowledge of the reality of the artisanal mining population that presents social and cultural elements that determine their health and that should be considered in intervention strategies aimed at improving working conditions.

By Gloria Peña Oliva, Ana Calle Carrasco, Fabián Araya-Galleguillos

2023-10-13 Original
Use of mobile devices in the promotion of health and well-being in young university students

Introduction: In the digital age we live in, mobile devices (DMs) have become a fundamental extension of our lives, and college students are no exception. Young university students are increasingly turning to their MD as multifunctional tools to address aspects related to their physical, emotional and social well-being.
Objective: To characterize the use of DM in the promotion of health and well-being in young university students.
Methods: The study is cross-sectional with a quantitative approach and a non-experimental design, basic type and descriptive level was adopted. The sample was census made up of 89 students from the Faculty of Health Sciences of a public university in Trujillo, Peru. To collect the data, the survey and the questionnaire were used.
Results: Regarding the use of DM, it was reported that 61.80% (55) specified a moderate level of use, 21.35% (19) a high level, and 16.85% indicated a low level. Therefore, the use of DM motivates them to maintain an active and healthy lifestyle, which may be essential to maintain a constant exercise routine.
Conclusions: It was possible to specify a moderate level in the use of DM, which suggests that they find a balance between the use of DM for activities such as monitoring physical activity, stress management, access to health information and participation in online communities related to health and wellness.

By Lidia Ysabel Pareja Pera, Roberto Carlos Dávila-Morán, Juan Manuel Sánchez Soto, Dimna Zoila Alfaro Quezada, José Leonor Ruiz Nizama, Rafael Alan Castillo-Sáenz, Leonardo Velarde Dávila, Elvira García-Huamantumba, Apolinar Saldaña Ponte, Alexander Frank Pasquel Cajas

2023-11-05 Original
Physical activity and dietary habits in university students: A correlational study

Introduction: In university life, students often undergo significant changes in their daily routines, which can lead to sedentary behavior patterns such as long study hours and excessive use of electronic devices. At the same time, independence and the availability of diverse food options can influence their dietary habits.
Objective: To determine if physical activity is significantly related to the dietary habits of students in the nursing program at a public university.
Methods: A quantitative approach was employed, using a non-experimental research design of a descriptive and cross-sectional correlational nature. The sample consisted of 192 students who were administered the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Dietary Habits Questionnaire, both of which exhibited appropriate metric properties.
Results: Preliminarily, it was found that the students were characterized by having a sedentary behavior and by exhibiting less than suitable dietary habits. Additionally, it was determined that the Spearman's rho correlation coefficient between physical activity and dietary habits was 0.626, and the p-value was lower than the significance level (p<0.05).
Conclusions: There is a significant direct relationship between physical activity and dietary habits among students in the nursing program at a public university. Therefore, it is suggested that the university should implement programs to promote physical activity on campus, provide healthy food options in university facilities, and include topics related to nutritional education in the curriculum.

By Maribel Mamani-Roque, Edwin Gustavo Estrada-Araoz, Milton Raul Mamani-Roque, Roberto Anacleto Aguilar-Velasquez, Franklin Jara-Rodríguez, César Elías Roque-Guizada

2023-10-25 Original
Stress in Nurses Working in Health Facilities during the COVID-19 Pandemic in North Lima

Introduction: The occupational stressing nursing professionals is one of the most common problems within their work environment, factors such as shortage of biosafety equipment, high patient demand and not having adequate communication between staff, causes stress to increase considerably interfering with care of quality in patients, therefore the research objective is to determine the stress in nurses working in health facilities during the COVID-19 pandemic in North Lima.
Methods: It is a quantitative, descriptive-transversal study with a population of 255 nurses who answered a questionnaire of sociodemographic data and the Nursing Stress Scale in its Spanish version.
Results: In the results it was observed that professionals who are on duty between 1 and 5 years, 22.4% have low stress, 43.9% medium stress and 33.6% high stress.
Conclusions: In conclusion, strategies should be carried out to maintain the healthy mental health of nurses through counseling with professionals specialized in mental health.

By Hernan Matta-Solis, Eva Ventura-Hernandez, Anika Remuzgo-Artezano, Hernan Matta-Perez, Alejandro Cruzata-Martinez, Rosa Perez-Siguas, Brian Meneses-Claudio, Olga Valderrama-Rios

2023-12-09 Original
Cognitive aids as part of decision making in anesthesiologists

Introduction: Cognitive aids are tools created to help the user to perform specific tasks, whose application in medicine has shown great benefits. Their implementation has managed to reduce human error in decision making and in emergency or crisis scenarios; in the last decade, it has been possible to improve transoperative management, avoid omissions in management and, with them, a better survival for patients has been achieved. Methodology: A group of 30 anesthesiologists from the Hospital Ángeles Lomas were evaluated, divided into 2 groups of 15 participants each, presenting 2 clinical scenarios by means of a pre-established clinical simulation. Each participant was presented with a scenario under the same simulation conditions offering any medication or intervention allowed, as well as the use of cognitive aids, giving the opportunity to use them or not. Using the Likert scale (never, little, agree, agree, strongly agree) and the Stanford emergency manual, crisis management and decision-making time in these situations were evaluated. Results: A descriptive analysis was performed using mean and standard deviation or medians with interquartile ranges (IQR) for numerical variables. Statistical significance was observed in stopping the procedure with 3 (RIQ 3 - 3) vs. 3 (0 - 3), p=0.03; indicating adequate dose with 3 (RIQ 3 - 3) vs. 1 (1 -3) p=0. 005; correct or consider hyperkalemia 3 (RIQ 3 - 3) vs. 0 (0 - 2), p= 0.003; consider alkalinizing urine with 3 (RIQ 2-3) vs. 1 (0-1), p=0.001; maintain dantrolene infusion 3 (RIQ 3-3) vs. 1 (0-2), p=0.006, which are parameters evaluated in case 1. There were no significant differences in the comparison of time in clinical case 2. Conclusion: Cognitive aids show statistical significance in the prognosis and management of patients to carry out a better practice in critical scenarios.

By Cristian Irvin Ham Armenta, Darcy Danitza Marí Zapata, Luis Leobardo Fortis Olmedo, Diana Stephanie Calva Ruiz, Tania Sánchez Romero, Oralia Lara Padilla, Verónica Ruiz Vasconcelos

2023-10-08 Original
Eating habits during their working day in a group of fruit and vegetable vendors in an urban center in Chile

Introduction: Free fairs are environments dedicated to the commercialization of fresh products in a public space, their workers being a group of people characterized by working long hours and with irregular breaks, thus affecting their eating habits.
Objective: To know the eating habits during their working day in a group of fruit and vegetable vendors in the downtown sector of the city of Chillán. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional design. A sample of 87 stallholders was studied, obtained with the non-probabilistic method for convenience. A background questionnaire and a quantified consumption frequency survey were applied. R package, version 4.1.2 was applied.
Results: Most of the participants did not meet the recommendations for bread-cereals and meats (excess consumption) and fruits-vegetables and dairy products (insufficient consumption), according to the recommendations of the dietary guide for the Chilean population. Excessive consumption of fast food, sugary drinks, sugary juices and alcohol was also observed.
Conclusion: the eating habits of the stallholders and the lifestyle presented in this sample can trigger various pathophysiological complications in the medium and long term.

By Miguel Arias-Espinoza, Alexis Delgado-Gajardo, Nayadette Espinoza-Bahamondes, Miguel Ángel López-Espinoza

2023-10-26 Original
Social Representations, Deaf Early Childhood and Music in Chilean Sign Language on the Web

Social representations are immersed in a practical thought oriented towards communication and access to the world, where the linguistic environment and identity play a fundamental role in the development conditions of thought, language and feelings. Digital musical content is related to music, movement and sign language to create content from deafness, a preponderant aspect that motivates the objective of this research, to analyze the social representations of Deaf early childhood in musical accessibility in language. of Chilean signs in the web context. A documentary review of digital musical content for Deaf early childhood in the last 5 years was carried out on the YouTube platform. The results indicate little digital music content for Deaf early childhood. In conclusion, the realization of Deaf linguistic material is required to strengthen the development and identity of the Deaf child and generate spaces for transversal and diverse inclusion.

By Gina Morales-Acosta, Stefano Bertullo-González, Ana Milena Mujica-Stach, Yesica Olarte-Moreno, Adriana Anabalón-Quezada

2023-12-06 Original
Comparison of radiation protection effects between epigallocatechin gallate and ascorbic acid

Ionizing radiation can originate from naturally occurring radiation sources on the earth or it can be from man-made sources. When interacting with cells and living organisms, ionizing radiation produces free radicals, impacting biological molecules such as proteins, lipids, and DNA in the cell nucleus and membrane, leading to cell death or causing cell mutations. Epigallocathecin gallate (EGCG) and ascorbic acid (AA) are well-known natural antioxidants that have been studied and applied as potential radical scavengers. In this study, the radiation protection effects in the presence of EGCG and AA via the scavenging process of free radicals (mainly hydroxyl radicals) were examined. Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells were grown in YDP liquid medium containing yeast extract, peptone, and dextrose/glucose that supplemented with EGCG and AA at different concentrations. Then, the cell cultures were irradiated with both low (gamma) and high (helium ion beam) linear energy transfer (LET) radiations to evaluate the radiation effect on the survival of the yeast cell. Both of EGCG and AA play effectively important roles as radiation-protective agent for yeast cells and the effectiveness in radiation protection of EGCG and AA at the same concentration was almost the same between these two additives.

By Tran Thi Nhan, Youichirou Matuo, Yoshinobu Izumi, Maradi Abdillah, Lukas Wisnu Wicaksono, Vuong Thu Bac

2023-10-06 Original
Development of a prevention strategy for child malnutrition based on standardized assessment through anthropometry and bioimpedance methods

Introduction: The weight increase has occurred in recent decades at an increasing rate affecting individuals without distinction of sex, ethnicity, age or socioeconomic status; Overweight and obesity are defined as an excessive increase in body adiposity, which in turn is related to a broad spectrum of chronic non-communicable diseases that generate a great burden on health systems.
Objective: To develop a prevention strategy for child malnutrition based on standardized assessment through anthropometry and bioimpedance methods.
Methods: a descriptive, prospective and longitudinal research is developed, based on a theoretical systematization of nutritional processes in the infant age group.
Results: It is necessary to have early diagnosis instruments that present a low technical complexity and reduced cost to evaluate populations with higher risk factors, thus reducing the progression of the disease and the establishment of complications, specifically in children, the body mass index is an instrument that presents limitations to evaluate the percentage of body fat, By complementing the evaluation of body composition by electrical impedance, it supplements these, improving its diagnostic capabilities.
Conclusions: The strategy of prevention of overweight and obesity designed, based on the analysis of body composition by electrical impedance in school-age children, taking into account that this diagnostic method allows to know the components of the human body and express it in percentages, in the same way it is possible to locate children with excess adiposity even when the body mass index determines a state of normality in the subjects evaluated.

By Álvaro Sebastián Ron Mora, Alicia Monserrath Zabala Haro

2023-10-26 Original
Quality of Life in Diabetic University professors Treated in Outpatient Clinic for Care in a Hospital in Lima

Introduction: The quality of life in diabetics is one of the priorities faced by the health professional for their necessary care, therefore, the research objective is to determine the quality of life in diabetic university professors treated in an outpatient clinic for their care in a hospital in Lima.
Methods: It is a quantitative, descriptive and cross-sectional study, with a population of 113 diabetic participants who answered a questionnaire of sociodemographic aspects and the diabetes 39 instrument for data collection.
Results: In their results, it is observed that 18 (15.9%) of diabetic university professors have a low quality of life, 77 (59.3%) mean quality of life and 28 (24.8%) high quality of life.
Conclusions: It is concluded that university professors with diabetes mellitus should be guided about life changes in university professors with the presence of the disease.

By Lida Asencios-Trujillo, Lucia Asencios-Trujillo, Carlos La Rosa-Longobardi, Djamila Gallegos-Espinoza, Livia Piñas-Rivera, Hernan Matta-Solis

2023-12-10 Original
Efficacy of Opuntia Ficus Extract as a lipid-lowering agent in experimental animals

Introduction: The use in therapeutics of medicinal plants; has been very useful to cure diseases since ancient times in application to "traditional medicine". There is an increase in "Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases", such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, hypolipidemia, and stroke. Objective: Therefore, the normo-lipidemic activity of Opuntia Ficus Indica was evaluated in Wistar rats. Methods: Seven groups of seven animals each were formed, normal group, negative (no treatment), positive (atorvastatin), group (Opuntia Streptacantha), 3 groups (opuntia ficus indica different doses). Initial lipid profile values were determined, hyperlipidemia was induced by administration of a hypercaloric diet (carbohydrates 31.52% and total fat 28.33%) for 60 days, and once the dyslipidemia was proved, the treatments were administered to each group, respectively. Lipid profile values were determined after 7, 14 and 21 days of treatment. Results: The results obtained: total cholesterol from the seventh day of administration of the post-hyperlipidemia treatments, regularized to normal values (58.1±10.0 mg/dl), compared to the negative control (group B) (127.25±14.12 mg/dl), maintaining this trend on day 21 of treatment. The HDL from day 7 of administration the values began to normalize in all OFI treatment groups (18.3±3.4 mg/dl), on day 21 to the group that was administered the dose of 62.5 mg/kg, in which the HDL values (25.6±3.3 mg/dl) normalized. Conclusion: It is concluded that OFI extracts regulated lipid values in experimental animals.

By Glenda Sarmiento Tomalá, Stuart Nelson Montoya Vizuete, Pilar Soledispa Cañarte, Zoraida Burbano Gomez, María C Villacres, Sandra Elizabeth Vizuete Proaño

2023-12-31 Systematic reviews or meta-analyses
Intimate partner violence against women: systematic review of current typologies, methodologies and topics in its research

Introduction: Intimate partner violence against women is a public health problem. Currently, there is a significant number of research on this problem.
Objective: Describe methodological aspects, typologies and variables studied in empirical research on intimate partner violence against women.
Method: A systematic review was carried out, with a search in WOS, Scopus and SciELo for publications between 2015 and 2019. Of 762 articles identified, 178 met the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: The most used design was the cross-sectional one, with quantitative correlational analysis (73%); with samples between 100 and 500 participants (31%) and mainly developed in North America (43%). Regarding the variables, individual characteristics of the woman, physical and mental consequences of IPV, characteristics of the couple's relationship and social variables that may affect IPV are studied. IPV was characterized as Psychological, physical and sexual, with a new typology called coercive control.
Conclusions: The use of cross-sectional designs is understandable due to the ethical implications required for this population; The variables included include a wide spectrum of both possible risk factors and consequences of violence. Coercive control constitutes a new comprehensive aspect at IPV.

By Mery Laura Ballesteros Cárdenas, Carolina Isabel Inostroza Rovegno, Fabiola Sáez-Delgado, Luís Emilio Izquierdo Araujo

2023-03-07 Systematic reviews or meta-analyses
Prevention of pneumonia associated with invasive mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit

Introduction: The figures associated with pneumonia to mechanical ventilation (NAVM) is from 30% to 70% in morbidity and mortality rates and its incidence is reflected in an increase in hospital stay and care costs for health institutions.
Methods: The study was carried out using a research strategy in the online search engines of academic Google, Pubmed, Lilacs, Scielo, Cochrane, CINAHL, with inclusion criteria and 143.040 were found; 86 articles that met the search for Ventilation Associated Pneumonia (Healthcare - Associated Pneumoniae), Artificial Respiration associated with nursing care (Respiration Artificial, Nursing Care) were attached to the study.
Results: The following main focused activities were determined To prevent VAP, strict hand hygiene with alcohol-based products (ABP) before manipulating the airway. Control and maintenance of the pressure of the pneumotamponade (> 20 cm H2O). Avoid supine position at 0°, whenever possible. Aspiration of subglottic secretions. Promote the process of early extubation, safely. Oral hygiene with chlorhexidine (0.12-0.2%).
Conclusions: Nursing activities reduce the incidence of pneumonia in Mechanical Ventilation. Continuous training must be promulgated to provide care that is validated by scientific evidence.

By Andrea Pamela Vaca Moreano, Rocío Elizabeth Quinteros Portilla, Mónica Guadalupe Paredes Garcés, Jeannette Mercedes Acosta Nuñez

2023-03-09 Systematic reviews or meta-analyses
Propofol infusion syndrome: A systematic review

Introduction: Propofol infusion syndrome (SIP) is a rare but extremely serious condition that can occur following the administration of high doses (>2-5 mg/kg/h) of propofol for prolonged periods (>48 hours). However, cases of SIP have also been reported after low-dose or short-duration propofol infusion. The condition is characterized by metabolic acidosis, cardiovascular and renal disturbances, rhabdomyolysis, as well as electrocardiographic abnormalities, etc.

Objective: To describe the main characteristics, prevention, diagnosis, and management of SIP.

Methods: A literature search and selection of articles published in the last 5 years on SIP in critically ill patients were carried out in English, Spanish, and Portuguese. This was done through the Pubmed, TRipDatabase, SciELO, and Google Scholar databases, following the PRISMA methodology.

Results: 26 articles were included, which analyzed the definition, general characteristics, epidemiology, risk factors, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, prevention, and treatment.

Conclusions: The literature found reports that SIP is very rare but potentially fatal. The best treatment is prevention and early diagnosis. It is important to be aware that patients receiving propofol infusion are at risk of developing SIP. Therefore, greater monitoring and knowledge of patient clinical profiles is recommended. If SIP is suspected, propofol use should be discontinued and replaced with an alternative hypnotic agent, and management should be initiated. This includes immediate discontinuation of propofol infusion and problem-oriented management, such as hemodialysis, hemodynamic support, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in refractory cases. Further research is needed on SIP to obtain more data on its diagnosis, pathophysiology, and incidence.

By Rone Santos Lucas, Marcelo Adrian Estrin

2023-06-28 Systematic reviews or meta-analyses
Autonomous learning in higher education. Systematic review

Introduction: Higher education requires new learning scenarios, centered on flexible didactic strategies that allow student autonomy and contribute to their maturity in communicative-research competencies.
Objective: Various investigations carried out regarding autonomous learning in higher education were analyzed. The research was important because it verified the relationship between autonomy and learning.
Methods: Qualitative research, systematic review, followed the standards of the PRISMA Declaration; The information was obtained in the Scopus database, in the period 2018 - 2023 following the inclusion and exclusion criteria. For the analysis, 50 articles were selected (31 quantitative, 5 qualitative and 14 mixed).
Results: They revealed that autonomous learning is the result of the union of individual or group work, self-motivation, solution strategies, responsibility, empowerment and autonomy on the part of the student together with freedom, empowerment, preparation of didactic material. of the teacher.
Conclusion: most of the research emphasizes personal responsibility in the face of a situation and self-direction of learning; however, no study addresses the five dimensions of autonomous learning.

By Jose Jeremias Caballero-Cantu, Edith Delia Chavez-Ramirez, Mercedes Evangelina Lopez-Almeida, Edgar Salvador Inciso-Mendo, Juan Méndez Vergaray

2023-05-28 Systematic reviews or meta-analyses
A Review of Surgical and Anesthetic Care in Quito, Ecuador

Introduction: Surgical and anesthetic care are critical components of healthcare services in Quito, Ecuador. The region has made significant advancements in technology, training, and infrastructure, which have improved the quality of care and outcomes for patients. However, there are still challenges and opportunities that need to be addressed to ensure that patients have access to high-quality surgical and anesthetic care.
Objective: The objective of this review is to examine the developments, challenges, and opportunities in surgical and anesthetic care in Quito, Ecuador.
Methods: The review was conducted through a comprehensive search of 20 relevant articles and studies on surgical and anesthetic care. The search was conducted using online databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect. The articles and studies included in the review were selected based on their relevance to the research question and their quality and validity.
Results: The results of the review indicate that there have been significant advancements in technology, training, and infrastructure for surgical and anesthetic care in Quito, Ecuador. However, the shortage of medical professionals, limited resources, and other challenges remain to be addressed.
Conclusions: the review highlights the developments, challenges, and opportunities in surgical and anesthetic care in Quito, Ecuador. The findings of the review have implications for policymakers, healthcare providers, and medical professionals in the region, highlighting the need for continued investment in these critical medical services to ensure that patients have access to high-quality surgical and anesthetic care.

By José Andrés Martínez Gutiérrez, Ruth Alba Hernández Espinosa, Lenin Alexander Quel Mejía, Andrea Blanco Silva, Fanny Rodríguez Núñez, Marcos Manuel Vásquez Mendoza, Erick Josue Fabre Morales, Gabriela Esmeralda Jarrín Vallejo

2023-06-07 Systematic reviews or meta-analyses
Effects of physical activity on healthy brain aging. Systematic review

Introduction: Although there is consensus that physical activity plays a fundamental role in successful aging, it is necessary to investigate the real impact it has on the brain.
Aim: The aim of this study is to identify the effects of physical activity on healthy brain aging by analyzing the structural and/or functional changes it may generate in the brain. In addition, we aim to determine whether regular participation in physical activity throughout life is a predictor of healthy brain aging.
Methods: A systematic review was conducted in three databases: Web of Science, Scopus and PubMed, following PRISMA-P guidelines. Articles published between 2010 and 2023 were included. Experimental, quasi-experimental, clinical trials and cohort studies were considered.
Results: A total of 63 articles were identified, of which 17 were included in the analysis. Of these, 14 reported significant effects of physical activity on healthy brain aging, of which 11 evidenced structural, 2 functional, and 1 mixed benefits. In addition, 13 articles demonstrated that participating in physical activity across the lifespan supports cognitive aging.
Conclusions: Engaging in physical activity throughout life leads to structural and/or functional benefits in the brain during old age, which are related to better cognitive performance. Furthermore, it is suggested that regular participation in physical activity may be a predictor of healthy brain aging. However, controversy persists as to the type, duration and intensity of physical activity that meets the conditions necessary to promote optimal cognitive aging and that can be used as a standard measure for the promotion of healthy brain aging.

By Claudio San Martín-Barra, Carlos Rojas-Zepeda, Fabiola Sáez-Delgado

2023-07-02 Systematic reviews or meta-analyses
Biomarkers used for the diagnosis and prognostic in systemic lupus erythematosus

Introduction: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus or also called SLE is an autoimmune and chronic pathology where there is a dysregulation of the immune system causing the presence of antibodies to attack the body itself. Its symptomatology is classified as type I and II therefore, it is associated with risk factors such as environmental, genetic, and hormonal. This disease is mostly suffered by women of childbearing age between 15 and 45 years, however it is less frequent in children and men.
Objective: To identify the biomarkers that help the diagnosis and prognostic in SLE, describe the classification criteria of SLE and immunological methods for its detection.
Methods: A descriptive research was carried out by searching information about biomarkers used for diagnosis and prognostic in systemic lupus erythematosus through databases such as: Google Scholar, Pubmed, Elsevier, Scielo, Redalyc during the period 2015-2023. The sources consulted were a total of 35 using keywords such as systemic lupus erythematosus, biomarkers, antibodies using in the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus.
Results: It was established that for the diagnosis of SLE biomarkers of early detection, confirmation, activity, nonspecific and other biomarkers that are associated to this pathology. While for prognosis, confirmation biomarkers are useful when a patient has been diagnosed with SLE.
Conclusions: The main biomarkers used in the diagnosis and prognostic of SLE are ANA, anti-dsDNA, anti-SM, anti-RNP, anti-Pribosomal, anti-Ro/SSA and there are also the molecular biomarkers miR-196 and miR146, likewise, criteria such as EULAR/ACR-2019 are used in diagnostic support.

By Karen Michelle Jaramillo Sancho, Gabriela Paola Valenzuela Sánchez

2023-07-15 Systematic reviews or meta-analyses
Obesity: genetics and diagnostic biomarkers

Introduction: Obesity is considered a public health problem and affects children, teenagers, and adults worldwide; the principal causes are bad diet, lack of exercise, and genetic factors, which can trigger multiple chronic diseases.
Objective: To understand the genetics of obesity and diagnostic biomarkers used in the clinical laboratory.
Methods: Google Scholar, Pubmed, SciELO, Dialnet, and ScienceDirect databases were used. We found 34 articles in English and Spanish that met the search criteria: genes, obesity, and diagnostic biomarkers, using articles 5-10 years old.
Results: The analysis of the different research describes some genes that are important factors for obesity; some genes are FTO, MC3R, MC4R, and POMC alterations are associated with obesity. However, there are measurable biomarkers in blood that help in its diagnosis, among them lipid profile, insulin, glucose, C-reactive protein, ghrelin, adiponectin, and leptin.
Conclusions: FTO was the first gene associated with obesity that has been described in several worldwide studies. In addition, the analysis of biomarkers in the clinical laboratory is vital in the diagnosis as it helps in treating or controlling this disease so that this pathology does not increase its incidence.

By Nicol Tatiana Navas Morales, Gabriela Paola Valenzuela Sánchez

2023-07-03 Systematic reviews or meta-analyses
Musculoskeletal disorders associated with occupational activity

Background: Musculoskeletal disorders are significant problems in workers, causing both economic and public health complications. These disorders result in work absenteeism, disability, and increased morbidity and mortality in the general population.
Objective: The aim of this study is to compile the best available evidence on work-related musculoskeletal disorders.
Methods: A literature review was performed using the following eligibility criteria to select the articles: to be published in the last 5 years and to belong to quartiles one to four. No discrimination was made by language and studies with different methodological designs were included, such as analyses, descriptive, cross-sectional, retrospective and prospective studies. The electronic bibliographic databases used to search for scientific articles were Pubmed, Cochrane, SciELO, Scopus, among others. Information was extracted individually from each article, following the PICOs strategy of the Prisma Guide.
Results: A high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was identified in workers worldwide. The symptoms most commonly associated with these disorders were pain in the cervical and lumbar region. Among the related risk factors were female sex, age over 50 years, body mass index over 25 kg/m2, prolonged standing, repetitive movements, static postures, working hours over 8 hours, and even work experience of more than 5 years.

By Gisella Narcisa Regalado García, Klever Gregorio Regalado García, Jorge Andrés Arevalo Rojas, Dayamy Escalona León

2023-07-25 Systematic reviews or meta-analyses
Intestinal pneumatosis: a problem of misdiagnosis

Introduction: Intestinal pneumatosis, pathology in the intestinal wall associated with different underlying clinical conditions, due to the accumulation of gases that generate inflammatory diseases, frequently related to the patient's state of emergency, requiring rapid diagnosis. Objective: To describe relevant aspects of Intestinal Pneumatosis as a problem derived from a bad diagnosis, in order to reduce the morbidity and mortality rate in patients with acute pathology.
Methods: Bibliographic review article, supported by documentary methodology, by compiling information in digital databases: Pubmed, SciELO, Science Direct and Google Scholar, using descriptors in Health Sciences (DeCS), with article inclusion criteria. published between the years 2017-2022, in English and Spanish.
Results: They point towards the manifestation of the pathogenesis, still to be determined exactly, given the multiple causes and related pathologies that can complicate the finding in time, becoming a daily medical challenge with even asymptomatic patients. Likewise, carrying out invasive assessments can compromise intraperitoneal exploration in certain cases, making it necessary to complement it with other methods to obtain a better diagnosis.
Conclusions: Imaging is considered ideal to verify a diagnosis of IP, specifically computed tomography, since they can demonstrate internal details in the intestinal wall, being able to show three patterns of pneumatosis, which are reviewed by the literature through through cystoid bubbles, linear and circular patterns, being binding for proper diagnosis in time to help reduce comorbidities and avoid current morbidity and mortality rates.

By María del Cisne Gaguancela-Sabando, Cindy Grace Dávalos-Barzola

2023-06-28 Systematic reviews or meta-analyses
The Art and Science of Pediatric Tumor Reconstruction Surgery: A Comprehensive Review

Introduction: Pediatric tumor reconstruction surgery stands at the intersection of multiple disciplines, demanding a unique blend of surgical expertise, technological innovation, and a thorough understanding of pediatric oncology. With the evolution of surgical techniques, advanced imaging modalities, and the advent of minimally invasive and robotic surgery, the landscape of pediatric tumor reconstruction has seen substantial transformations.
Objective: This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state and future directions in pediatric tumor reconstruction surgery, shedding light on the art and science of this complex discipline, and outlining the necessity of multidisciplinary collaboration for improved patient outcomes.
Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar databases with the terms "Pediatric Oncology", "Reconstructive Surgery", "Tumor Surgery", "Minimally Invasive Surgery", "Robotic Surgery", "Surgical Outcomes", and "Quality of Life". The search included articles from 2004-2023.
Results: Findings from the review reveal a trend towards minimally invasive and robotic surgery, offering the potential for less invasive treatment options and better recovery for patients. Advancements in technology have played a significant role, with photodynamic therapy, near-infrared photoimmunotherapy, and fluorescent-guided surgery providing new tools for local and regional cancer treatment.
Conclusions: Pediatric tumor reconstruction surgery continues to evolve with advancements in surgical techniques and the integration of innovative technology. The field presents promising future directions, but further research is needed, particularly concerning new treatments, understanding local relapse, and enhancing postoperative quality of life.

By Erick Josue Fabre Morales, César Augusto Guzmán Canaba, Lissette Brigitte Llerena Chicaiza, Dipaola Pamela Pino Vaca, Lenin Stalin Muñoz Villacres, Carlos Alexander Romero Córdova, Hailyn Isabella Villarreal Díaz, Andrea Mishell Rodríguez Coloma, Álvaro Andrés Lucero Carrera

2023-10-04 Systematic reviews or meta-analyses
Spirituality from the nursing perspective in palliative

Introduction: the application of palliative care at the end of life aims to provide comfort, quality, pain relief and a dignified death to patients, however, another important point to address is spirituality which seeks to provide peace and tranquility to the soul.
Objective: to analyze knowledge and care on spirituality from the nursing perspective in palliative care.
Methods: systematic review obtained by reviewing scientific articles and applying the PRISMA method.
Results: selection and analysis of 16 scientific articles that met the inclusion criteria.
Discussion: the present article supports the perspectives on spirituality held by nurses in palliative care, as well as their barriers and actions to be employed when faced with these situations.
Conclusions: Spirituality represents a primary focus within palliative care and the nursing staff must be prepared to meet the needs of patients and devise actions that allow them to overcome the barriers that compromise their correct actions.

By Joselyn Mireya Iza Arias, Miriam Ivonne Fernandez Nieto

2023-09-09 Systematic reviews or meta-analyses
Nursing teacher training in the use of educational innovation in primary health care: A literature review

Introduction: COVID 19 has disrupted all aspects of health care and health professions education systems, has glimpsed the inadequacies and needs for a better public health infrastructure and health system where the protagonists deserve to be heard.
Objective: To analyze the scientific evidence on the training of nursing teachers in the use of educational innovation in Primary Health Care.
Methods: A systematic review was carried out by searching the following databases: SciELO, Lilacs, Medline, Redalyc, Scopus and PubMed; the keywords used were: "educational innovation", "nursing education", "continuing education", "primary health care".
Results: The analysis of the 23 papers shows that the nurse in COVID19 time faced great challenges every day in their walk, as well as shortcomings in the continuous and virtual teaching training of these; it should be noted that, these identified shortcomings require to be included in the training processes to strengthen teaching skills in Higher Education institutions and Health Institutions, to provide strategies or interventions that endorse the change in the landscape of disease prevention and health promotion at the first level of care.
Conclusions: University teachers need to develop competencies in the use of digital tools and innovation in their teaching work to encourage nursing students to include new models of interventions in the care of prevention and health promotion.

By Verónica Karina Arias Salvador, Maricelys Jimenez Barrera, Jorge Leodan Cabrera Olvera, María Teresa Cabanillas Chavez, Monica Elisa Meneses-La Riva

2023-08-23 Systematic reviews or meta-analyses
Common retroperitoneal tumors

Introduction: Retroperitoneal tumors (TRP) are defined as those solid or cystic, benign or malignant tumors that develop in the retroperitoneal space from tissues such as lymphatic, nervous, vascular, muscular and connective, among others. Due to its location, it is difficult to think about the diagnosis on many occasions.
Objective: to characterize retroperitoneal tumors whose diagnosis allows us to understand its incidence frequency in morbidity and mortality.
Methods: Bibliographic review article, supported by documentary methodology, through digital databases: Pubmed, SciELO, Springer and Google Scholar, by descriptors in Health Sciences (DeCS), with inclusion criteria of articles published between the years 2018- 2022, in English and Spanish.
Results: Of the 20 selected articles, 55% correspond to case reports, 30% are review articles, 10% are original works and 5% were a presentation at an international congress. Regarding the world distribution by continents, by origin of the studies, 60% were developed in America, 30% in Asia and 10% in Europe, finding that Africa and Oceania have not reported published research in the last five years.
Conclusions: TRPs are rare pathologies, infrequent in the world, especially in Latin America, where, in turn, the scientific literature is few and limited. The clinical perspective is heterogeneous and non-specific, and can be confused with other pathologies that generally manifest as large abdominal masses; but, with organ preservation, discovered in working patients, producing challenges in terms of diagnosis and therapy for surgeons, radiologists and oncologists.

By Leyzer Salinas, Franklin Guanuchi

2023-07-24 Systematic reviews or meta-analyses
Nursing care in palliative care patients with cancer

Introduction: Cancer continues to be a problem in health care, especially in cancer patients with terminal diagnoses, the execution of palliative care is aimed at improving the quality of life by providing a dignified death.
Objective: Describe nursing care in cancer patients with palliative care.
Methods: Systematic review in selected studies or investigations through the application of the PRISMA method. Results: Selection and analysis of 16 original and review articles that meet the selection criteria under reliable supports.
Discussion: The number of selected articles supports the importance of nursing care in cancer patients, describes the symptoms present regardless of the type of cancer the patient presents, and also explains the degree of patient satisfaction with the interventions carried out. by nursing.
Conclusions: Palliative care has become a fundamental point in the care of patients with oncological diseases, nursing has a fundamental role where their care is focused on physical, psychological and emotional well-being to offer comfort to both the patient and their family until the end of the day. end of life Palliative care focuses on the integrality of the patient's quality of life.

By Nieves Liseth Cañaveral Estrella, Grace Pamela López Pérez

2023-07-24 Systematic reviews or meta-analyses
Disability due to cerebrovascular disease as a health problem in the context of nursing

Introduction: Cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) are conditions that cause a transient or permanent brain disorder due to a pathological process of the blood vessels of the brain; they are considered a functional and disabling disorder that modifies the lifestyle of the person due to the alterations they cause at the personal, social and family level. These aspects lead to the need for nursing care in the stages a person with this health problem goes through.
Objective: to regularize significant aspects of disability as a health problem in CVD in the context of nursing.
Method: A systematic review was conducted to analyze documents published from 2010 to 2023 with a clear methodology and theoretical referential selected from January to May 2023. The keywords identified in DeCS and Boolean operators were used: "disability" OR "Cerebrovascular disease" AND "Health" OR "Nursing." The search was performed in the SciELO, PubMed, Google Scholar, Dialnet, and Index databases. The flow diagram (PRISMA) was used to contribute to the search.
Conclusions: For nursing professionals, it is essential to generate changes in the health of people with disabilities by guiding their CVD to achieve benefits such as reorganizing their aspirations in shorter periods of adjustment or recovery. It is essential to improve the quality of life, to help and inform and educate about the effects of the disease and physical disability on day-to-day activities.

By María de los Ángeles Peña-Figueredo, Aníbal Espinosa Aguilar, Yenny Elers-Mastrapa, José Ignacio Escalante Quinteiro, Claudia Vega Peña

2023-09-08 Systematic reviews or meta-analyses
Mercury, lead and cadmium content in tuna and its effect on public health in Peru: Systematic review

Introduction: In Peru, publications indicate that the content of mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) in tuna exceeds the allowable maximum limits, leading to progressive health damage. Thus, communicating this threat is necessary.
Objective: To ascertain the presence of Hg, Pb, and Cd in tuna intended for direct human consumption and its implications for public health in Peru.
Methods: A systematic review was conducted following the PRISMA 2020 Statement. Information was retrieved from databases including Scopus, Latindex, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. Twelve articles were selected for analysis, following inclusion and exclusion processes.
Results: There is a prevalence (41.66%) of studies focusing on Hg concentration, while Pb and Cd were equally represented (16.67% each). Regarding Peru, the presence of metals was reported in 29% of the studies, indicating a higher tendency towards Hg consumption compared to Pb and Cd. However, the ingestion of any of these metals poses a significant risk to public health consumers.
Conclusions: Tuna, a species that incorporates heavy metals into its edible muscular tissue, is predominantly monitored for mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) due to their toxicity and bioaccumulation characteristics, making them particularly hazardous to public health, especially in Peru. Thus, continuous monitoring is recommended.

By Jorge Patrocinio Herrera-Cruz, Olegario Marín-Machuca, Rodolfo Martín Cornejo-Urbina, Jessica Blanca Vargas-Ayala, Miriam Corina Castro-Rojas, Hermenegilda Gloria Fuertes-Vicente

2023-09-23 Systematic reviews or meta-analyses
Communication in the humanized care provided by the nursing professional

Communication in humanized care allows an adequate development of the nurse/patient relationship with the objective of obtaining the necessary information that contributes to the planning of holistic care, thus satisfying all the patient's needs. Information on communication and its importance in the quality humanized care provided by the nursing professional was analyzed. To carry out this research, a documentary study methodology was used, which took into account those papers and scientific publications published between 2019 and 2023, which are freely available, in English, Spanish and Portuguese, using databases such as Google Scholar, Scielo, Dialnet, Redalyc, Elsevier for their search and selecting through the PRISMA method those that contribute to the research. Thanks to the analysis of the available information, it became evident that in addition to the relevance of this communicative process in the quality of care, there are negative points that limit its full development, the importance of appropriate academic training along with the constant training of the professional to adequately handle such situations and finally the perception that patients and / or family has.

By Karen Ganán, Fabiola Chasillacta

2023-10-24 Systematic reviews or meta-analyses
Prevention of Postoperative Infections: Assessment of Current Preventive Measures to Minimize the Risk of Infections Following Surgery, Including Antibiotic Administration and Sterilization Techniques

Introduction: The incidence of Surgical Site Infections (SSIs) is a growing concern in contemporary healthcare due to its implications for patient prognosis and the additional costs it incurs on the healthcare system. While various preventive strategies have been employed, such as antibiotic administration and diverse sterilization techniques, the current landscape necessitates a meticulous evaluation of their efficacy in minimizing SSIs.
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of current preventive measures, including prophylactic antibiotic administration and sterilization techniques, in minimizing the risk of postoperative infections.
Methodology: A systematic review of the literature was conducted, which included randomized clinical trials, cohort studies, and prior reviews, to assess the impact of preventive strategies on the incidence of SSIs. The databases consulted were MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library.
Results: The systematic review initially identified 85 relevant studies, of which 35 met the inclusion criteria. After a thorough analysis, only 12 articles remained that confirm the effectiveness of preventive measures, especially the administration of prophylactic drugs and advanced sterilization techniques, in reducing postoperative infections. The studies provide solid evidence of the reduction in infection incidence through these strategies.
Conclusions: Current preventive measures, including antibiotic administration and advanced sterilization techniques, appear to be effective in reducing SSIs. However, careful monitoring is essential to prevent the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains. A multidisciplinary approach that combines various preventive strategies is recommended for more effective management of SSIs.

By Mayra Viviana Chipantiza Barrera, Blanca Patricia Díaz Vacacela, Blanca Ofelia Pallango Espín

2023-10-06 Systematic reviews or meta-analyses
Malnutrition prevention strategy based on neonatal screening through the metcoff clinical method

Child malnutrition is a widely distributed pathology, as well as studied, the approach through the concept of the thousand days improves the understanding of the process, as well as the opportunities for intervention that can affect the eradication of the pathology and improve the quality of life of the child and the future adult. The present documentary research work addresses child malnutrition due to deficit and describes the development from the moment of conception to 2 years around fetal metabolic reprogramming particularly in the third trimester of pregnancy and compensatory growth "Catch up growth", opens the window to malnutrition in the immediate postnatal period, mediate, future, the introduction of sensitive tools CANS core that allows early detection of fetal malnutrition by labeling patients within a group of high nutritional risk in conjunction with those who present explicit alterations of the deprivation suffered in pregnancy. Thus, a proposal for a community strategy is proposed based on four axes: Early diagnosis of subclinical malnutrition, prioritization of the quality of health services, quality of data collection systems and social participation that, articulated with government strategies, optimizes economic, political and institutional efforts for the eradication of child malnutrition.

By Alicia Monserrath Zabala Haro, Álvaro Sebastián Ron Mora

2023-10-15 Systematic reviews or meta-analyses
Cardiometabolic effect of sodium and glucosa cotransporter inhibitors type 2

Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus has emerged as a leading cause of premature death and a growing threat to the healthcare system due to the high costs of medical care in the context of cardiovascular complications.
Methods: We conducted a systematic electronic search of clinical trials published from 2015 to January 2023 in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and ScieLO databases, which evaluated the efficacy and safety of the use of type 2 sodium-glucose cotransporter inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and established cardiovascular disease on routine treatment and their cost-effectiveness.
Results: Significantly lower rates of acute myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiovascular death and hospitalization due to heart failure were observed when the study drugs were added to standard therapy. In addition, it was evidenced that the reduction in cardiovascular clinical events manages to offset the cost of type 2 sodium-glucose cotransporter inhibitors resulting in a cost-effective use of resources at the health care level.
Conclusions: As the transition to a new evidence-based era of managing patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease progresses, it is imperative that new therapies are developed that not only improve glycemic control, but also improve cardiovascular outcomes, because these events represent the major cause of mortality in this population.

By Melissa Olmedo-Muñoz, Ricardo Recalde-Navarrete

2023-11-21 Systematic reviews or meta-analyses
Artificial Intelligence in Gamification to Promote Mental Health among University Students: A Scoping Review

Introducción: La gamificación es una estrategia lúdica que se ha utilizado para motivar y comprometer a las personas en la consecución de objetivos específicos. En el ámbito de la educación y salud mental, la gamificación se ha convertido en una herramienta prometedora para mejorar el bienestar emocional y psicológico de las personas.
Objetivo: el objetivo de este documento fue realizar una revisión de alcance de la literatura para analizar la efectividad de la inteligencia artificial (IA) en la gamificación para promover la salud mental en los estudiantes universitarios.
Métodos: se realizó una búsqueda exhaustiva de artículos científicos en diferentes bases de datos, para su elaboración se utilizaron las directrices de la declaración PRISMA. De una primera fase, en donde se encontraron 424 títulos potencialmente relevantes, se llegó a la selección de 14 artículos para el análisis.
Resultados: los estudios analizados mostraron que la gamificación puede aumentar la motivación y el compromiso, así como mejorar la autoestima y la autoeficacia en estudiantes de educación superior. Además, se encontró que el 50 % de los artículos tuvo financiamiento, lo que demuestra el interés por parte de las instituciones de educación superior en mejorar sus estándares de calidad.
Conclusión: los artículos publicados indicaron que la gamificación puede efectuarse en cualquier área de estudio impulsado por las tecnologías emergentes como la IA. Sin embargo, es importante tener en cuenta que la efectividad de las intervenciones de gamificación puede variar en función de diferentes factores, como calidad del diseño del juego, contexto de implementación y características del usuario.

By Verónica Freire-Palacios, Kléber Jaramillo-Galarza, Jessica Quito-Calle, Lenin Orozco-Cantos

2023-12-20 Short communications
Interpretation of oral anticoagulants in oral surgery management through PRISMA 2020 literature review

The number of patients undergoing oral anticoagulant treatment who require dental procedures has increased in Latin America over the last few years. These patients present a higher risk of bleeding during oral surgery, thus requiring special handling during the surgery to prevent complications. Oral anticoagulants include vitamin K antagonists and direct-acting anticoagulants. The study's aim was to interpret oral anticoagulants in the management of oral surgery through a PRISMA 2020 bibliographic review. A systematic search was conducted in certified academic databases, including PubMed, SCOPUS, Scielo, and Google Scholar, using the keywords "oral anticoagulants" and "oral surgery" for studies published in English, Spanish, and Portuguese between 2016 and 2023. Ten articles were selected for the review, determining that patients on oral anticoagulants can undergo dental procedures without interrupting or altering the anticoagulant regimen with the respective local hemostatic measures to minimize the risk of bleeding during and after the intervention. It was concluded that it is of great importance to carefully evaluate each patient before any oral procedure and highlighted the importance of following clinical practice guidelines for the management of anticoagulated patients requiring oral surgical procedures, and to discuss the risks and benefits of intervening in the anticoagulant therapy with the patient. Furthermore, communication between the dentist and the treating physician is recommended to ensure proper management of the anticoagulant therapy

By Johanna Leticia Ortiz González, Daniel Alexander Samaniego Haro, Luis Patricio Llerena Mayorga

2023-05-31 Short communications
Care management and prevention of falls in people with cancer

We understand nursing care management as the professional practice based on the discipline. Its objectives are to improve accessibility, coverage and timeliness through the good use of resources, clinical management and nursing care, by means of an integrated health care model. An oncology unit involves a multidisciplinary team of specialists who are responsible for the study, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of the disease. People with oncological pathologies have an undetermined time of hospitalization, which increases the risk of presenting a fall. Applying daily fall risk scales, in addition to wearing appropriate footwear, maintaining adequate physical activity, eliminating or moving any element that may alter free mobility in the room, maintaining well-lit environments and using assistive devices such as: handrails, grab bars for shower and bath, bath booster seats and resistant seats for the shower would be sufficient to prevent a fall. However, the Ministry of Health (MINSAL) suggests additional measures as a strategy to reduce the risk of falls during hospitalization in people with cancer. Despite the evidence and application of all these measures, there is no effective evidence for the prevention of falls, and the interventions to be carried out will depend on each person and the associated health risk. Therefore, the simultaneous use of all the prevention measures would help to reduce the eventuality of a fall during hospitalization.

By Camilo Andrés Silva-Sánchez

2023-03-17 Short communications
Effects of the pandemic on education, training, teaching work and student learning

Approximately two years ago, the Coronavirus was declared a worldwide pandemic by the WHO and despite the fact that today the situation is different, a vaccine could be found that would reduce the impact on deaths and contagion, it will be an anecdote that will remain in the memory of all those who lived and were contemporary to the situation. This event not only directly affected health, but also had very large consequences in terms of economics, the completely collapsed health and education systems and without many tools to deal with this situation. In this article, the effects of the pandemic on education, training, teaching work and student learning will be exposed, mainly because it is very possible that, in several years, the wounds that the pandemic left in education being one of the deepest and most affected. The virtual learning modalities that were used in this context were ICT and for this, not only the teaching commitment to use this didactic tool, but also a State that guaranteed access to receive connectivity and monitoring of the right to quality education taking decisions that arise directly in the educational system, teacher training and student learning.

By Erolita Jexenia Casquete-Tamayo, Hishochy Delgado Mendoza

2023-04-09 Short communications
The related aspects derived from psychopedagogical diagnosis and the genomic era in the context of professional development

Introduction: The establishment of strategic alliances for psychopedagogical diagnosis in the postgenomic context and its analysis from the perspective of professional development constitute a challenge. In this sense, it is imperative to apply the latest advances in Biomedical Sciences to evaluate psychopedagogical diagnosis. This reality is evidenced in the work of the Diagnostic and Orientation Center, the result of the research project carried out in collaboration with the Provincial Department of Medical Genetics in Camagüey.
Objective: To establish the fundamental links between the postgenomic era and psychopedagogical diagnosis.
Methods: A compilation and selection of original scientific articles from the last ten years was carried out by consulting indexed databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, SciELO, Dialnet, and Redalyc. The terms "strategic alliances," "psychopedagogical diagnosis," and "professional development" were used, and the articles were selected and analyzed according to their content.
Results: From epistemology and theory, it was possible to verify the existence of observations that describe necessary aspects to link the advances achieved in the postgenomic era and psychopedagogical diagnosis through qualitative approaches.
Conclusions: It is necessary to reshape the Professional Development of the technical advisory team of the Diagnostic and Orientation Center to integrate the most promising advances in genomic sciences due to their impact on current educational systems.

By Rosaralis Arrieta García, Olga Lidia Núñez Rodríguez, Ángel Luis Gómez Cardoso, Estela Morales-Peralta

2023-05-16 Short communications
Knowledge generation in the telecommunications era and its impact on education and economic development in Latin American

The present study is a branch of previous research carried out in 2017, called "Management of knowledge networks in the shrimp fishing sector in Sinaloa, Mexico." It is a collaborative research project in some Latin American countries, consisting of a theoretical model of knowledge management based on a study in a particular sector; however, this does not prevent the likelihood of its being applied to other areas and strategic sectors in Latin American developing countries from taking place. The study deals with a documentary review of various sources and previous and subsequent studies; moreover, it presents a diagram or proposal of a model in 5 levels or phases that include the main elements that generate knowledge in the educational field and show their relationship with productive regional development. The study concludes that, currently, this type of model serves as an alternative strategy to deficiencies and lack of resources; thus fostering greater linkage between academic and productive areas among the involved actors, and investment for improvement.

By Liberato Cervantes Martínez, Gabriel Arturo Farías Rojas, Wellington Villota Oyarvide, Guillermo Del Campo Saltos

2023-05-14 Short communications
Contribution to the exercise of the human right to education: training proposals for teachers, educational institutions and teachers

It is based on two central concepts to carry forward, the first in education and the second in human rights. The importance lies in the fact that each person has the right to receive quality education based on human rights, where each subject can enjoy a protected, inclusive and free life. It is essential to analyze the practice of education from a perspective that starts from human rights directly linked to social inclusion, in addition to the possibility of making proposals that help and frame this type of contribution of the exercise of human rights in education. Education based on human rights provides different spaces for action where a political-pedagogical activity is interacted that has the purpose of building in the classroom aspects that provide better inclusion and social equity for all. Education must be guaranteed by States because access to it is a right for all individuals and starting from an approach towards the exercise of a human right is to think that it can be an engine to train subjects in these bases and that truly any person can exercise it freely. Education has a fundamental role for development and changes in different societies, these changes have been made within and from human rights could not only be a challenge, but would bring immediate improvements in the quality of subjects individually and collectively.

By Idana Beroska Rincon Soto, Betty Janeth Soledispa Cañarte, Pilar Asunción Soledispa Cañarte, Alain Castro Alfaro

2023-05-16 Short communications
Systems Development: a Holistic Vision in Health Science

In the field of health science, it is important to understand the dynamics of scientific development, as well as the ontological, methodological and epistemological positions that support the results of research in this area, in order to have a more complete vision of the phenomenon under study. The aim of this research is to explain such dynamics. The methodological design used is qualitative and exploratory, employing the hermeneutic method and triangulation. The results show that each geometry explains the development of a complex system, and that the study of the development of Fourier theory and Wavelets theory provides a holistic view in health science. In conclusion, this research approaches scientific dynamics from a systemic perspective and relevant to health science, which could have important implications in the development of new knowledge and applications to meet the needs of society.

By Daniel Andrade Girón, William Marín-Rodriguez, Edgardo Carreño Cisneros, Marcelo Zuñiga Rojas, Irina Calvo Rivera

2023-05-16 Short communications
Contributions of neurosciences, neuromarketing and learning processes in innovation

The objective of this research is to contribute through the use of projects and marketing to develop innovative proposals that allow businesses to be at the forefront of the commercial system and satisfy the needs of customers. The methodology used in this research is descriptive with a bibliographic, qualitative and quantitative approach. In this study, 25 students of the Marketing subject of the Higher Technology in Administration career of the Bolivarian University Institute of Technology participated, we worked with 6 teams and selected to 6 businesses, instruments such as the interview were used, and the survey that was applied to 1297 consumers, and potential clients, satisfactory results were obtained for the businesses, managing to develop 6 projects that applied can generate quick and agile solutions to businesses, Results were satisfactory at an educational level, it was achieved that students can apply theoretical and practical knowledge to contribute to the commercial development of the selected businesses, the methodology used is significant to contribute to the innovation of products and / or services.

By German Jazmany Zambrano Verdesoto, Idana Beroska Rincon Soto, Alain Castro Alfaro

2023-06-06 Short communications
A comprehensive approach to the multicultural environment and well-being from the People, Ethnicity and Culture approach in the Ecuadorian context

This study set out to analyze cultural ethnicity from a multicultural perspective, focusing on its role as a historical identity in the new Ecuadorian generations and its transcendence in their actions. We used a mixed methodology combining quantitative and qualitative techniques and expert opinion, in a descriptive research framework. To collect data, we used the survey technique and processed the results with IBM SPSS 25 software. This methodology was crucial to verify the basis of historical identity in the new Ecuadorian generations, standing out as a reference that incorporates the values of multiculturalism. In addition, it was identified that, as a cultural process, respect and autonomy in the expression of ethnic identity -considering its cultural, social and religious manifestations- represents a challenge for these generations. This finding emphasizes the importance of understanding and respecting the individual reality of each ethnic group in contemporary Ecuador.

By Lilia Moncerrate Villacis Zambrano, Graciela María Castellanos Pallerols, Frank Lemoine Quitero, María Alejandra Barberán Moreira

2023-06-12 Short communications
Well-being, Experiences, and Ancestral Culture: Values from Interculturality

The objective of the work was to analyze the experience of ancestral culture based on the values of cultural identity. Throughout history, it has been evidenced that culture continues to be transmitted through life, enriching the people in wisdom. However, it is currently being lost due to the impact of foreign cultural influence that invades the youth, relegating the values of ancestry. For this reason, it is important to examine the thinking of young people on this subject and understand their cultural vision from a global perspective. To carry out this work, qualitative, quantitative and analytical methods were used. In addition, the Delhi method was used, which made it possible to consult experts using a specific instrument. The type of research conducted was descriptive, and the technique used was a survey. The information collected was processed using SPSS 25 software, which helped to measure the reliability of the instrument used, obtaining a value of 0.95. The most relevant conclusion of the study was that values, multiculturalism and diversity are still valid. However, a dichotomy is observed in practice, which has led to the loss of referents. Especially, young people find it difficult to be congruent with their actions and words, resulting in a loss of identity. This implies the need to preserve traditions, customs, memories, gastronomy and diversity in the context of globalization.

By Lilia Moncerrate Villacis Zambrano, Valeria Cecilia Bravo Gómez, Luis Daniel Zambrano Molina, Víctor Manuel Román Vélez

2023-08-06 Short communications
A Study Investigating the Application of Spiral Learning To Incorporate Informatics into the Curriculum for Undergraduate Nursing Education

A lack of informatics proficiency among nursing students, working professionals, and academics hinders nurses' skills to use technologies to enhance sufferers' care globally. Programmed health is a field that requires investment, according to national nursing education initiatives and professional organizations' suggestions. In the United Kingdom, a Bachelor of Nursing degree incorporates health informatics, as shown in the following case study. International collaboration with a United States-United Kingdom Fulbright Expert Scholar allowed for the development and inclusion of unique training units matching crucial health informatics competencies in an educational structure focused on the spiral training approach. This method is suggested as a means of integrating information into nursing training so that students can develop into competent clinicians who can provide care in a healthcare system that is technologically enabled.

By Ritika Karnani, Sandeep Kumar C, Veda Murthy R

2023-06-27 Short communications
Care management and relapse prevention for people with dengue fever

We understand care management as the care of the welfare of patients in practice, the objective aims to improve the hospital management of patient care where in a group of infectologists participate, a multidisciplinary team that are responsible for the treatment, monitoring and diagnosis of the disease. Apply the risks of relapses, such as using repellents, not collecting water, throwing away stagnant water, staying away from places with plants. Although there is no evidence and application of exact measures to prevent relapses of dengue virus, care interventions will depend on each patient.

By Justiniano Felix Palomino Quispe, Domingo Zapana Diaz, Leopoldo Choque-Flores, Luis Villar Requis Carbajal, David Quiroz Suarez, Arturo Santino Peña Crisostomo, Pamela Jennifer Sullca-Tapia

2023-08-03 Short communications
Adoption of Artificial Intelligence in Health Care: A Nursing Perspective

Artificial intelligence (AI) is revolutionizing various areas of health care, particularly the medical and nursing field, called "Adoption of Artificial Intelligence in Health Care: A Nursing Perspective." This article examines the state of artificial intelligence (AI) in healthcare research, its use, its advantages for healthcare, and any challenges that can arise when adopting AI to healthcare organizations. The benefits of AI, such as increased efficiency, cost savings, future direction, improved decision-making, and enhanced patient care experiences. It is the need of the hour to address the challenges to ensure the successful adoption of AI in healthcare operations and treatment modalities including Nursing. The possible difficulties with applying AI, include issues with data protection, the requirement for additional knowledge and training, and moral issues. The Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Healthcare offers organizations looking to use this technology to achieve their cost-effective strategic objectives for improved patient care useful insights into how AI is transforming the medical and nursing fields and interventions.

By Senthilkumar T, Tamilselvi Arumugam, Hariprasath Pandurangan, Karthikeyan Panjaiyan

2023-10-14 Short communications
Peer tutoring program and academic monitoring of students in the Bachelor of Science in Nursing program at the University

University tutoring has gradually become a topic of interest for higher educational institutions, given the need to provide students with new learning opportunities in which they are the main actors. Academic performance and disengagement from university life are seen as emerging problems that require the implementation of measures, especially at the university entrance stage. Planning for the implementation of peer tutoring is not easy, and several factors will have to be considered, ranging from the management of the institution to involve all the educational actors, to the continuous evaluation and improvement of the planning itself. It is expected that the results of the peer tutoring project will generate contributions to the student's learning process, such as the development of their own skills on the subject, and other competencies that can be developed through practical experience. As well as to know the scenarios and methodologies used that, according to the student tutors' point of view, benefit and/or hinder them in their teaching-learning processes. The use of a methodology that combines in-depth interviews and questionnaires will provide significant knowledge for individual experiences, as well as more general ones, so that it is expected to know the tutor's role from different points of view, having a comprehensive view of it. In this way, it will be possible to identify and systematize the contributions and/or obstacles that may arise in the implementation of the program.

By Carlos Oscar Lepez, Irene Amelia Simeoni

2023-11-30 Short communications
Anthropological and sociocultural perspective of occupational stress

This article addresses the issue of occupational stress from an anthropological and sociocultural perspective in the field of biomedicine. Stress, in both common thinking and that of health professionals, has been characterized as physical and emotional discomforts caused by worries, fears, anxieties, and anxieties. Researchers have linked occupational stress to the rapid evolution of information technology, economic and social crises, and changes in working conditions. In addition, medical anthropology has contributed to the debate on genetic and cultural factors in personality and pathology, as well as the influence of culture in defining normal and pathological. The article highlights the importance of considering both the physical and sociocultural environment in the analysis of occupational stress. While business authorities focus on the personality and coping of workers, workers are concerned with working conditions and work organization. It is pointed out that stress is a physical, emotional, social and moral discomfort, whose origins and consequences are structural and whose expression varies from person to person. The article also stresses that the prevention of work-related stress must be based on a relational perspective involving knowledge and practices of different orders and dimensions (biological, social, cultural, economic, historical and ideological). Finally, it is emphasized that diseases are not randomly distributed in the population, but are related to the social structure and the position of individuals in it.

By María de las Nieves Veloz Montano

2023-12-31 Review
Effectiveness of a skin care nursing unit on in-hospital pressure injuries in a Chilean hospital

Introduction: Pressure injuries constitute a public health problem that impacts on people's health status and quality of life, increasing costs for hospital organisations.
Aim: To evaluate the impact of a specialised skin care nursing unit on hospital-acquired pressure injuries in a high complexity public hospital in Chile.
Methods: Quantitative, quasi-experimental, prospective study. A non-probabilistic convenience sample of users who presented at least one pressure injury of in-hospital origin during the study year was used. Persons hospitalised in closed-care clinical services were included, including adult and paediatric emergency services.
Results: 5106 people were evaluated, of whom 9.77% presented pressure injuries. The average age was 67.27 years, the distribution by age group corresponded to 62.73% in the elderly, 32.67% in adults and 4.61% in the paediatric/neonatal population. The clinical services with the highest number of pressure injuries corresponded to internal medicine and the adult intensive care unit. In relation to the anatomical area, the highest incidence was in the sacral area and then the heel, with category 2 being the most frequent. The incidence prior to the implementation of the intervention during the year 2021 corresponded to 28.75%, while after the strategy it was quantified as 9.7% (p<0.001).
Conclusions: Implementing a specialised skin care nursing unit has an impact on reducing the incidence of pressure injuries in hospitalised persons.

By María José Chávez Montecino, Nicolás Ramírez Aguilera, Felipe Machuca-Contreras

2023-12-30 Review
Cutting-Edge Insights: A Narrative Review of Advances in Plastic Surgery

Introduction: The field of plastic surgery has undergone significant advancements in recent years, with innovations in technology, techniques, and patient care. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of these developments, highlighting their impact on surgical practices and patient outcomes.
Objective: To explore and synthesize the latest advancements in plastic surgery, focusing on technological innovations, surgical techniques, patient-centric approaches, ethical considerations, and future trends.
Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted using databases such as PubMed and MEDLINE, focusing on publications from the past five years. 24 articles were selected based on relevance to technological and surgical advancements in plastic surgery. Data from these sources were analyzed and synthesized to identify key trends and developments.
Results: The review identified significant advancements in areas such as 3D printing, AI applications, minimally invasive procedures, regenerative medicine, and patient-centered care. Challenges such as ethical considerations, global disparities in access, and the need for updated surgical education were also highlighted.
Conclusion: Plastic surgery has experienced transformative advancements, notably in technology and surgical techniques, which have significantly improved patient outcomes. However, challenges like ethical dilemmas and accessibility remain. The field is poised for continued growth and innovation, requiring ongoing adaptation and ethical consideration.

By Paúl Fabricio Quiñónez Tipan, Zamarit Paola Salas Molina

2024-02-18 Review
Clinical laboratory diagnostic techniques used in the identification of the helminth Ascaris lumbricoides, a review of the literature

Ascariasis is a disease caused by the helminth Ascaris lumbricoides (intestinal worm), which infects an average of 819 million individuals. Approximately more than 60,000 people die worldwide each year from this parasite. It is classified as a neglected subtropical endemic disease and is frequently found in Africa, Latin America, and East Asia.
Ascariasis is detected by conventional tests, which are based on the direct identification of A. lumbricoides by direct macroscopic examination, traditional microscopy, formaldehyde concentration method, Kato-Katz, McMaster, flotation techniques (such as FLOTAC and Mini-FLOTAC), with the aim of observing helminth eggs; all these are cost-effective tests, but of low or moderate sensitivity. Therefore, molecular biology methods such as conventional PCR and multiplex PCR are an option for the detection of this parasite due to their high sensitivity and specificity, but their low accessibility in endemic countries due to the high prices of reagents and equipment should be considered. Indirect methods based on serology have been used for the identification of A. lumbricoides, but they have generated cross reactions with infections by other helminths so there is no specific serological test for this parasite at present. Nowadays, new techniques have been designed with high sensitivity and specificity that allow the diagnosis of ascariasis, among which we can mention detection and identification of A. lumbricoides eggs through optical imaging and loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

By Elena Johanna Pérez Laborde, Yajaira Marilin Rueda Castillo

2022-01-07 Review
Ethical conditions for research with the elderly: a narrative review

Introduction: The population aging raises the need for the inclusion of older people in research, and therefore, the review of ethical guidelines that grant protection to this age group, especially in conditions of vulnerability.
Objective: To find out about the ethical conditions involved in research with older people and the protection they should be afforded as research subjects. Methods: Narrative review of 15 original articles published between 2001 and 2021, indexed in the PUBMED, Web of Science, CINAHL, and SCOPUS databases. The descriptors used were Ethics in Research and Aged/ Elderly.
Results: The main findings point to the poverty of research on aging issues and unjustified discrimination in the participation of older people in clinical studies. An update is provided on the ethical conditions for research on older people, according to the requirements set out by Emanuel.
Conclusions: The need to include older people in clinical research is imperative, for which it is necessary to integrate advances in Chilean legislation that allow the participation of this age group in different situations of vulnerability while maintaining the conditions of protection contemplated in international ethical guidelines and agreements. Participatory research and methods that include the community can be an opportunity to approach research within a framework of respect and citizen education.

By Beatriz Carrasco Diaz, Elizabeth Solis Albanese

2022-01-17 Review
Assessment of anxiety in drug-dependent adults institutionalized in rehabilitation centers

Consumption of psychoactive substances has been a controversial issue to world public health due to its harmful effects that go beyond the individual's physical health and affect other areas of their lives such as the social, family-related, academic and work-related spheres. Consequently, as consumption increases, psychological disorders of diverse kinds become evident; anxiety is one of the most prevailing. These problems are more apparent in patients recovering from their addiction since their situation makes them vulnerable. Therefore, this research aims to describe the anxiety levels in drug-dependent adults institutionalized in rehabilitation centers. For this purpose, search engines in PubMed and Scopus were used, using Boolean operators and descriptors in Spanish and English; besides, PRISMA was used to identify and select information. The most significant finds include sex-related differences where women have more prevalence of anxiety than men. Furthermore, these patients' most frequent psychiatric comorbidities include depression, ADHD, antisocial disorder and psychotic disorder. Finally, new non-pharmacological approaches showing promising results have been found to treat anxiety, such as electrical acupuncture, martial arts and physical exercise.

By Alexandra Abigail Encalada Pardo, Rosa Elizabeth Solorzano, Jennifer Garnica, Adriana Condo

2022-03-26 Review
Characteristics of dental cysts

Introduction: Lesions of odontogenic origin such as cysts with benign characteristics but which; however, they can cause great destruction and facial deformities. The "Cysts" become a type of benign affectation, which form either lumps or a pathological cavity with liquid or semi-liquid content and is covered by epithelium on the inside and by connective tissue on the outside.
Objective: Describe the characteristics and how dental cysts manifest.
Methods: a bibliographic review was carried out, through an electronic search in the main databases (PubMed, Taylor & Francis, Scopus and ScienceDirect). Articles published between 2016 and 2022 were included.
Results: the characteristics of cysts were identified, such as their manifestation, their characteristics, types, etc., so it was found that common cysts such as ondontogenic and dentigerous.
Conclusions: it is concluded that there are different characteristics of dental cysts depending on their manifestations, clinic, radiography, etc.

By Tamara Marcela Palacios Pérez, Gilda Natalia Palacios Pérez, Claudia Gabriela Clavijo Rosales, Heiddy Carolina Romero Ibáñez, Evelyn Paulina Feijoo Rosales

2022-03-20 Review
Prognostic efficacy of Platelet/Lymphocyte ratio and Neutrophil/Lymphocyte ratio in patients with gastric cancer

Cancer is the main cause of death before age 70. Gastric cancer (GC) is responsible for 1 in 13 deaths worldwide and is predominant in men. Inflammation is closely related to cancer, as it activates different blood cells such as neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, etc. A bibliographic review was carried out to collect and analyze studies concerning the prognostic efficacy of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in patients with gastric cancer. Upon analysis, several studies indicated that elevated values of both NLR and PLR show poor prognosis. However, we suggest that more research is needed to obtain cutoff values according to GC staging, in order to be a helpful tool in GC diagnosis and prognosis.

By Joselyn Macarena López Altamirano, Daniela Alexandra Rosero Freire

2023-03-17 Review
Role of oxidative stress and therapeutic options in SARS-COV-2 infection

Introduction: Elevated levels of oxidative stress in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection generate tissue damage, causing organ dysfunction and generating a suitable environment for viral replication.
Aim: To describe the mechanisms by which oxidative stress is generated in patients with Sars-Cov-2 and its therapeutic options.
Methodology: A non-experimental and narrative study of bibliographic review type was carried out, data will be collected from original articles in indexed journals using the PubMed database.
Results: Patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection present elevated levels of oxidative stress, on the contrary, the levels of antioxidant agents are depleted, increasing the degree of oxidative stress to a greater extent. The use of N-acetylcysteine in a COVID-19 positive patient is a subject under discussion since, although there are inconsistencies in its degree of efficacy, no adverse effects of any kind have been observed.
Conclusions: there are antioxidant therapeutic options under study, however, despite having a high safety profile, their efficacy in the treatment of COVID-19 is still unproven.

By Ivan Ronaldo Quilambaqui Brito, Danilo Gustavo Muñoz Palomeque

2023-01-30 Review
Analysis of quality of life in drug-dependent adults

Quality of life is defined from the economic sciences, as an effect of economic automatism and inequality in social development. In relation to people who consume psychoactive substances, it was determined that it radically affects the level and achievement of life, relationship, personal growth, physical well-being, safety, spirituality, environment, among others. Among the aims to highlight is to analyze the quality of life in drug-dependent adults, in addition, we seek to collect information about the quality of life in general and later focused on people addicted to psychoactive substances, to gather research in relation to drug dependence and to associate the QOL investigations in patients addicted to psychoactive substances. Therefore, it is established that there is a low level in the quality of life of this group of patients, due to the fact that such addiction affects several aspects, causing alterations in their behavior. In this way, the quality of life is determined by means of medical instruments that are used during clinical practice, in relation to people addicted to psychoactive substances, it is established that it has detrimental effects leading to the development of various psychiatric and behavioral disorders.

By Jennifer Garnica, Rosa Solórzano, Alexandra Encadala, Lisseth Guamán

2023-04-17 Review
Mean platelet volume and its close relationship with septic hospital infections

Introduction: the average platelet volume is obtained from the blood count, considered as a low-cost and easily accessible biomarker, available in all medical units. It is considered a biomarker that indicates inflammation, thrombosis, and endothelial injury, while foreign studies have shown encouraging advances in diseases with prothrombotic and immunoinflammatory components.
Objective: to establish the relationship of mean platelet volume with hospital septic infections.
Methodology: information sources available in the Pubmed, Medicgraphic, and SciELO databases were consulted, as well as the Google Scholar search engine. Publications in both English and Spanish were included, with a maximum of 5 years prior to the topic of interest.
Results: Original articles were analyzed in which populations of neonates and adults with sepsis are analyzed. Populations of newborns reflected a high value of MPV in the first 24 hours, proving to be an early predictive marker in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis, while population studies in adults reflected a much higher MPV in septic patients who later died. in relation to those who survived, being also considered a predictor of mortality.
Conclusions: it is evident that MPV is closely related to sepsis since it increases progressively during infection, constituting a biomarker for early prediction and poor prognosis in sepsis.

By Daniela Alexandra Rosero Freire, Stephanie Pamela Urvina Paredes

2023-02-01 Review
Clinical manifestations of genital herpes in adults

Introduction: One of the most common pathologies is the genital herpes that affects worldwide and every year increases more, it is part of the sexually transmitted diseases, it is important to recognize the clinical manifestations that suffer patients to achieve a prompt diagnosis, since there are people who are asymptomatic, but the most common manifestations are the vesicles and the pruritus in the genital areas.
Objective: to explain the clinical characteristics of genital herpes in adults Methods: the literature review was carried out by means of a virtual search of the databases found such as PubMed, Scopus and ScienceDirect, where articles published from 2017 to 2021 were found.
Results: among the most recurrent results we find manifestations such as myalgia, erythema, pruritus, adenopathies, genital, inguinal and buttocks vesicles, followed by fever, dysuria, urinary retention, nausea and neck stiffness.
Conclusions: it is concluded that there are different types of clinical manifestations and not all people will be the same; however, vesicles and pruritus in the genital areas are clinical characteristics that will be found in all cases.

By Claudia Gabriela Clavijo Rosales, Ricardo Enrique López Velasco, Joselyn Esthefanía Romero Ibáñez, Jean Pierre Padilla Balarezo, Christian Jonathan Álvarez Arauz

2023-03-25 Review
Knowledge related to sexually transmitted diseases in adolescents

Introduction: currently sexually transmitted diseases are a public health problem worldwide.
Aim: to describe the knowledge related to sexually transmitted diseases in adolescents.
Methods: a bibliographic review was carried out in which various scientific articles were compiled. For the collection of information, a search was carried out in databases such as PubMed, Cochrane, SciELO.
Results: adolescents have a lack of knowledge and limited understanding about sexually transmitted diseases. Studies suggest teens generally don't have access to adequate information on the topic of sexually transmitted diseases, which contributes to the spread of these diseases.
Conclusion: there is a weak association between the level of knowledge and the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in adolescents, that is, if the level of knowledge is high in the adolescent, the lower the prevalence of these diseases. Adolescents need to have adequate education within the home and educational institutions on sexuality issues and sexually transmitted diseases.

By Grace Zulema Huanga Huanga, Julio César Ojeda Sánchez

2023-03-18 Review
Systemic lupus erythematosus in pregnancy

Introduction: Systemic lupus erythematosus affects mainly women, so it can also be remarkably exposed during pregnancy.
Objective: To conduct a literature review using PRISMA methodology on the variables that intervene in the planning and control of pregnancy in women with systemic lupus erythematosus.
Methods: A search was generated in the Web of Science, Scopus, ProQuest, and Pubmed databases between 2018 and 2022.
Results: 13 studies meeting the inclusion criteria were selected, in which the variables of planning, complications, and treatment were addressed.
Conclusions: Through the literature review, it was possible to determine the variables, in addition to the fact that it could be established that planning should be relevant to be considered by women with SLE for this to be successful, in addition to the fact that due to the different circumstances of the management, some complications may arise.

By Juan Andres Mendez Guerrero, Paola Carolina Sarmiengo Uguña, Victor Manuel Chuqui Orellana

2023-02-16 Review
Cannabis as a precursor of psychosis and its relationship with schizophrenia

Introduction: schizophrenia is a chronic mental disease affecting around 24 million people worldwide. Within this disease, it is common to find the consumption of psychoactive substances by patients, with cannabis ranking first on the list; this drug bears a particular relation to schizophrenia through the effects of the cannabinoids proper to that plant.
Objective: determine the relationship between the consumption of cannabis and schizophrenia.
Methodology: a narrative bibliographic review was performed to find information using databases such as Scopus and PubMed with descriptors MESH/DECS via keywords, taking into account articles from 2009 to 2023, in English and Spanish and with criteria of inclusion and exclusion of the articles to be analyzed.
Results: it was assessed that cannabis consumption could trigger a psychotic episode in vulnerable individuals; the transition to psychosis was found to occur among those who started to consume cannabis before being 15 years old and continued consuming it frequently. Cannabis consumers were not more prone to develop psychosis than those who had never consumed cannabis.
Conclusions: cannabis consumption is one of the most important modifiable risk factors in the development of psychosis since it works as a componential cause for the outcome of a psychotic event framed within the spectrum of schizophrenia.

By Roberto Carlos Mora Vera, Rosa Solorzano, Jorge Andrés Lozano Aveiga, Byron Enrique Peña Cordero

2023-02-03 Review
The usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging for the prognostic evaluation of patients with heart failure

Introduction: the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in heart failure (HF) is much discussed, both in the etiological and prognostic evaluation of this disease. Therefore, a description of the usefulness of MRI would show us its role in the evaluation of prognosis in patients with HF of various etiologies.
Aim: to describe the usefulness of MRI for the evaluation of prognosis in patients with HF of various etiologies.
Methodology: a narrative literature review was carried out by means of a search in databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Elsevier and Springer (BMC).
Results: cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is superior to echocardiography in assessing left ventricular volumes and function with better reproducibility, also when analyzing systolic abnormalities and characterizing viable myocardial tissue, as well as that with the presence of myocardial fibrosis. Precisely, the detection of myocardial fibrosis has a predictive value for adverse events in patients with HF.
Conclusion: CMR is useful to identify previously undetected pathology and pathologies that are difficult to diagnose. Thus, its use is associated with better diagnostic performance and, therefore, a better predictor of adverse events in patients with HF.

By Jorge Andrés Lozano Aveiga, María Daniela Toro, Roberto Carlos Mora Vera, Byron Enrique Peña Cordero

2023-03-10 Review
Beliefs and factors of childbirth care in rural communities in America 2005-2020

Introduction: In the research, a rural community context is developed and how childbirth is carried out, according to the beliefs of each person in the community.
Objectives: To know the way in which the beliefs associated with childbirth have an impact on the different rural communities located in America, between the years 2005-2020.
Material and method: Review of the literature from 2005 to 2020 in the SciELO database, Pubmed, Google Scholar, Uptodate.
Results: Indigenous communities in Mexico and Peru share beliefs associated with the placenta, which have a main point in common, which is related to fetal well-being and the spiritual management of the process. On the other hand, in Venezuela and Peru, the reasons for delivery care in the respective homes of indigenous women and families are indicated, one of these being geographic barriers and accessibility to health centers.
Conclusions: It is a topic in which there is still a lot to investigate and put into practice, since not all the countries of the Americas have public policies on considering interculturality at the time of delivery in health centers.

By Felipe Calderón Canales, Daniela Flores Fierro, Bárbara Matus Orellana, Etienne Núñez Allup, Camila Peñailillo Pérez, Ana Ortiz Burgos, Danitza Reinoso Lara

2023-02-17 Review
Genetic polymorphisms predisposing to the development of systemic lupus erythematosus

Introduction: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease with a very heterogeneous clinical presentation mediated by both environmental and genetic factors, it is predominantly female with a 9:1 ratio compared to males, as well as by Afro-descendant ethnic groups, Asian and Hispanic; its pathogenesis is mediated by polymorphic variants of different genes that provide susceptibility to this disease and that have been related to different clinical characteristics, among the most notable are lupus nephritis, cardiovascular diseases, while its treatment is not established.
Objective: to determine the genetic polymorphisms predisposing to the development of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.
Methodology: the PubMed search engine was used together with Boolean operators and descriptors in the English language. Based on the search results, the articles to be included in the review were determined by selection according to involvement in the subject.
Results: sixteen genetic polymorphisms involved in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus were found.
Conclusion: polymorphisms explain the predisposition for the female sex, as well as the development of more severe clinical manifestations, highlighting lupus nephritis in specific ethnic groups such as Afro-descendants.

By Susana Alejandra Avila Vásquez, Cristian Carlos Ramírez Portilla

2023-02-04 Review
Methods in breast reconstruction for patients with a history of breast cancer after total or partial mastectomy

Breast cancer is an oncologic process in which healthy cells of the mammary gland degenerate and transform into tumor cells, proliferating and multiplying until the tumor is formed. It is known that breast cancer is one of the main causes of death in women. Therefore, mastectomy is one of the most used medical interventions to prevent, fight or stop breast cancer totally or partially. Due to this, the aim of this work was to determine the method or methods used for breast reconstruction for patients with a history of breast cancer after a total or partial mastectomy, and also to know a little about possible complications if any, to know which would be the most assertive to apply to the patient, for which information was collected in databases, and using a method similar to PRISMA a necessary number of articles that met the criteria for the preparation of the work were chosen, and search terms were used in pages such as MESH/DECS. Among the main methods found to achieve breast reconstruction was the immediate reconstruction that can even be applied at the time of mastectomy, however, the technique to be used will depend on the patient’s case, as soft tissue flaps can be used, as well as autologous tissues that are cataloged with better results even than radiotherapy.

By Andrea Crespo, Fabián Jiménez, Pio Cueva

2023-03-05 Review
Role of vitamin D in autoimmune rheumatological diseases

Introduction: Vitamin D is a hormone synthesized in the skin, by the presence of the "precursor molecule 7-dehicrocholesterol" whose action depends directly on the stimulus of ultraviolet rays for the production of cholecalciferol. It has several functions including a fundamental role in mediating the response of the immune system, plays modulatory actions, counteracts inflammatory, oxidative and fibrotic activity, and consequently regulates autoimmune tissue lesions. As it possesses an immunomodulatory property, is related to the appearance and progression of autoimmune disorders.
Objective: To describe the role of vitamin D in autoimmune rheumatologic diseases.
Methods: A narrative review was performed, collecting information from January 2019 to January 2023 in scientific databases such as: Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar, using keywords.
Results: Vitamin D in autoimmune rheumatic diseases influences the control and decrease of inflammatory activity, slows its speed of progression and improves clinical manifestations, although there is no total consensus on the mode of use, however, its supplementation has a great benefit.
Conclusions: The role of Vitamin D in autoimmune rheumatic diseases varies according to the underlying pathology, in combination with bisphosphonates it can improve bone mineral density in spondyloarthropathies, prevent osteoporosis, improve the clinical picture of SLE and Systemic Sclerosis, but it can increase antibody levels in Connective Tissue Diseases.

By Clarisa Isabel Calderón Centeno, Karina Fernanda Pucha Aguinsaca, Doris Elizabeth Aucay Yunga, Cinthya Anabel Muyulema Chimbo, Karla Leonela Ruiz Jumbo, Homero Abel Chacho Aucay

2023-03-05 Review
The role of the intestine as a target with a therapeutic role in people with neurodegenerative diseases

There is a bidirectional exchange known as the gut-brain axis with several connections including the vagus nerve, the immune system, metabolites, and bacterial products. During dysbiosis, there is an alteration of the blood-brain barrier permeability and neuroinflammation. The objective of this review was to describe the role of the gut microbiota and its therapeutic role in neurodegenerative diseases. The gut microbiota-brain axis includes a set of microorganisms including common bacteria (Lactobacillus and S. aureus), fungi, and viruses that play an important role in gut function, such as barrier protection and preventing the passage of bacteria or pathogens from outside the gut, as well as metabolizing carbohydrates and producing vitamins K, B12, and B7. However, when the gut microbiota is altered due to stress, diet, or other factors, communication through ascending pathways can lead to alterations in the immune, endocrine, and nervous responses.

By María Paz Valdivieso Castro, Julio Cesar Ojeda Sánchez, Jorge Eduardo Ochoa Aucay

2023-03-06 Review
Methodological strategies for the generation of conceptual models in nursing

Introduction: among the elements that make up the disciplinary knowledge of nursing are the conceptual models, which guide the work, so it is necessary to know the methodological strategies used for their construction.
Objective: to analyze in the available state of the art the methodological strategies used for the generation of conceptual models in nursing.
Methods: an integrative review was carried out according to the "Integra" methodology, consulting the WoS, SCOPUS, CINAHL and Dialnet databases, which were complemented with a manual search. After applying filters, inclusion and exclusion criteria, the final sample consisted of 27 manuscripts.
Results: the identified manuscripts fluctuated between 1968 and 2021, distinguishing a predominance in the inductive approach, the authors used elements that represent a specific reality for the construction of conceptual models of nursing, through empirical evidence through ethnographies, narrative studies, grounded theory and action research, practice experiences, observations, interviews, reflection, literature review and consensus of the researchers.
Conclusions: three methodological approaches were identified for the generation of conceptual models in nursing, the inductive, deductive, and finally the mixed approach, the latter triangulating the first two, being able to enhance the strengths of each approach and diminishing its weaknesses.

By Miguel Valencia-Contrera, Flerida Rivera-Rojas, Jenifer Villa-Velásquez, Rodrigo Ardiles-Irarrazabal, Naldy Febré, Sandra Valenzuela-Suazo

2023-05-22 Review
Nursing care of children with the Omicron variant

Introduction: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been identified, one of which is Omicron, which has caused alarm due to its high transmission rate and mutations affecting the pediatric population.
Objective: To carry out a review to identify the main clinical-epidemiological characteristics of pediatric patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.1.529.1 and the nursing management protocols.
Methods: A literature review was conducted according to PRISMA using keywords in Spanish and English in databases via PubMed, Cochrane library in the period December 2019 - January 2023 through gaps and MeSH descriptors.
Results: Of the total articles found, 30 met the inclusion criteria and were categorized into: 1. COVID-19 Omicron variant epidemiology in pediatric population (n₌ 9), 2. Clinical manifestations and complications of pediatric patients with Omicron variant (n₌ 16), 3. Nursing protocol for the management of pediatric patients with Omicron variant (n₌5). No studies addressing the epidemiologic profile by age group were obtained. The main clinical manifestations and complications by age range were identified. To date, there are no nursing care protocols to address the needs of children with COVID-19.
Conclusion: Protocols for the management of pediatric patients and the training of nursing staff on the real impact of the virus and its variants in children, with an impact on physical health, should be created and proposed.

By Guadalupe Belen Toapanta Ochoa, Miriam Ivonne Fernández Nieto

2023-03-29 Review
Oral health in Latin America: A view from public policies

Introduction: In many countries, oral health is not a priority health issue, which constitutes a fundamental challenge for health systems, which must guarantee universal and equitable access to basic oral health services for all and without economic difficulties.
Aim: The purpose of the article was to carry out an analysis of public policies in oral health adopted in Latin America.
Methodology: The methodology responds to a narrative review, resorting to various bibliographic sources, through databases such as Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science, SciELO and Redalyc.
Results: The results indicate that most oral health policies in Latin America are focused on clinical, individualized, curative and restorative care, where health promotion and community participation continue to be the fundamental strategies to overcome deep inequalities. in health facing Latin Americans.
Conclusions: It is concluded that it is essential to carry out oral health epidemiological studies in Latin America since they are part of essential tools for decision making, development, implementation and execution of policies, plans and strategies based on scientific evidence, as well as the approach multisectoral analysis of the social determinants of health.

By Marysela Irene Ladera Castañeda, Cristian Gumercindo Medina Sotelo

2023-03-26 Review
Evidence for carbetocin in obstetric hemorrhage

Introduction: A common procedure is to administer uterotonic agents regularly for the prophylaxis of postpartum and post-cesarean hemorrhage. The typical uterotonic drug recommended for this use is oxytocin, however, literature indicates better beneficial effects with carbetocin due to its sustained and prolonged uterotonic activity, as well as its safety and good tolerability.
Objective: To outline the data on carbetocin that has been found so far in relation to obstetric hemorrhage.
Methods: For this literature review, keywords related to carbetocin and obstetric hemorrhage were located using health sciences descriptors, and then searched in databases and search engines such as Google Scholar, PubMed, Lilacs, SciELO, Cochrane, and PubMed. Out of a total of 100 bibliographies, 32 articles were considered.
Results: Carbetocin is a thermally stable drug with a half-life approximately 4-10 times longer than oxytocin, with sustained uterotonic activity with the administration of a single dose (100 μg) intravenously or intramuscularly.
Conclusions: Carbetocin is a safe drug for prescription in patients with specific pathologies, as it maintains prolonged uterotonic effect, useful in post-cesarean hemorrhages. Its use is not yet fully promoted due to the high cost it represents at present.

By Edison Andrés Tixe Lluglla, María Carolina Chalan Analuisa, Inés Paulina Panimboza Guamán, Jhon Michael Sanaguano Castillo, Pablo Rodrigo Escobar Castillo, Fernanda Gabriela Dután Ortiz, Paola Elizabeth Serpa Román, Michelle Estefanía Quispe Punina

2023-04-18 Review
Philosophies, theories, and models used in occupational health nursing

No studies have been identified that address theoretical frameworks to guide the work of occupational health nursing. This integrative review aimed to identify nursing philosophies, theories and conceptual models applied in occupational health nursing. The search conducted in the WoS, PubMed, SCOPUS, BVS and CINAHL databases, analyzing 2974 manuscripts, applying filters, inclusion, and exclusion criteria previously defined, the final sample was composed of 17 articles. Of the selected studies, no philosophies were identified in the area, 1 manuscript corresponded to a theory and the remaining 16 were conceptual models. Regarding the topics, 2 papers were focused on environmental health, 3 addressed the client as a worker and 12 analyzed nursing as a worker; highlighting mainly emerging models, with a diminished development, as these were rescued mainly through the original publications of the authors and no uses were identified in other manuscripts. The identified theoretical frameworks will allow guiding the approach to health situations in occupational nursing. It was possible to distinguish developed areas, mainly associated with the formation, vision, role, orientation, and well-being of occupational health nursing, while the approach to the client as a worker and environmental health were only minimally addressed, being considered as knowledge gaps.

By Miguel Valencia-Contrera, Flerida Rivera-Rojas, Jenifer Villa-Velasquez, Rodrigo Ardiles-Irarrazabal, Naldy Febre, Sandra Valenzuela-Suazo

2023-06-11 Review
Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A Persistent Pathogen and Current Approaches to Treatment- Microbiology

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) represents an important bacterial pathogen, mainly because it may infect immunocompromised hosts, hospital patients, and people with cystic fibrosis (CF). Antimicrobial resistance has risen due to monitoring nosocomial P. aeruginosa infections, with tendencies toward model drug and carbapenem resistance. Some of the mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance include the downregulation of outer membrane porins, -lactamases, and multidrug efflux pumps. Toxins that be secreted and can build BioFlim (BF) are examples of virulence mechanisms. Effective therapy of infection caused by P. aeruginosa requires early delivery of the appropriate antibiotic medications, source control measures, and, where possible, prevention. Antibacterial de-escalation is supposed to be considered within patients by a positive clinical response, particularly as antibacterial susceptibilities were identified. Less common antibacterials, including Colistin, may be needed to treat multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa, although additional anti-pseudomonal antibacterials should become accessible soon.

By Nitish Kumar, Vasundhara, Sandeep Kumar Chavan

2023-06-11 Review
Pseudomonas putida in Industrial Biotechnology: Recent Advances and Future Directions

Gram-negative, rod-shaped Pseudomonas putida bacteria may be found in a variety of biological environments. This ubiquity can be attributed to its extraordinarily adaptable metabolism, ability to endure physicochemical stress, and propensity to survive in unfavorable conditions. These traits have led to an increase in interest in microorganisms for industrial usage, also associated with studying has advanced quickly in recent years. Strong motivators in this regard include use of inexpensive waste streams and sustainable feedstocks for manufacturing with added value compounds along with continual advancement of Systematic biology of this bacterium and genetic strain engineering. Here, provide a summary of current developments and future directions P. putida is used as a cell factory in genetic engineering, computer systems, and synthetic biology.

By Imran Ahmad, Uzma Noor Shah, Neha Lohia

2023-06-13 Review
Emerging Technologies in Industrial Microbiology: From Bioengineering to CRISPR-Cas Systems

Synthetic biology advancements have led to the emergence of "engineering biology" via equivalence and platform base on hierarchical, orthogonal, and modularized biological system. Utilizing bioparts found in sequence databases, genome engineering (GE) is required to create synthetic cells with the appropriate functionality. The CRISPR system, one of several tools, is modularly made up of Cas nuclease and guide RNA, making it simple to modify the GE at will. To correctly modify the GE at the distinct nucleotide level, many techniques have recently been devised. The CRISPR-Cas (CC) system has also been expanded to molecular diagnostics for nucleic acids and pathogen identification, together with viruses that cause illness. Furthermore, metabolic biotechnology is expanding to find the target of CC methodology, which can exactly regulate the production of certain genes in cells. In the present article, we evaluate the current state of several CC technology that may be used in synthetic biology and talk about how artificial biology and CC technology have evolved in the field of microbiology.

By Umar Farooq, Malathi Hanumanthayya, Izharul Haq

2023-06-13 Review
Nanoparticles in Growth Factor Therapy: A Promising Approach for Tissue Regeneration

Nanoparticles (NP) are being explored as a promising approach for growth factor therapy in tissue regeneration. Growth factors play a critical role in tissue regeneration by stimulating cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. However, the use of conventional growth factor therapy is limited by their short half-lives, rapid clearance from the body, and difficulties in delivering them to the target site. To overcome these challenges, nanoparticles have been used to encapsulate growth factors, providing a sustained and localized delivery system. The aim of this article focuses on the most recent advancements in Growth Factor Therapy (GFT), where tissue generation (TR) and cell therapy depend heavily on iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs). Additionally, the presence of magnetic fields can use mechanotransduction to drive cell differentiation into a particular cell type or to specifically route IONP-labeled cells to the site of action. Further research is needed to fully understand the safety and efficacy of using nanoparticles in therapeutic applications, but their potential to revolutionize tissue regeneration and provide better treatment options for patients suffering from various diseases and injuries is significant.

By Upendra Sharma Udayashankar Sulibele, Vivek Sharma, Imran Ahmad

2023-06-15 Review
Exploring the Potential of Probiotics as Biocontrol Agent

Threats from pathogenic microbes could affect the food and agricultural sectors. Pathogenic bacteria have the ability to contaminate food at any stage of the production process. Conventional techniques are frequently employed as microbial control measures, including those utilizing antibiotics, disinfectants, and physical procedures. Many nations have passed rules and regulations banning their usage due to the drawbacks of these technologies, including the formation of resistance, low effectiveness, high expense, and negative impacts on food, health, and the environment. An affordable, ecologically friendly alternative strategy is urgently required to solve these issues. When ingested in sufficient proportions, probiotics are live bacteria that protect the host against pathogens and provide nutritional advantages. Probiotic use in animals reduces zoonotic infections in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of animals, preventing the spread of these pathogens through food, according to the food microbiology perspective. In order to improve food safety and healthcare, probiotics have been suggested as an alternative antibacterial method of protection against harmful microbes. With a accentuate the meals and agricultural (livestock and aquaculture sectors) areas, we cover probiotics, their criterion for choosing, their modes of activity, and potential as alternative biocontrol agents in this review.

By Shweta R. Sharma, Suphiya Parveen, Jaspreet Singh

2023-06-16 Review
An emerging Microbe for Food Enzyme Production in Biomanufacturing

This article provides an overview of the characteristics, applications, and potential of Aspergillus niger in dietary enzyme production. A. niger is a filamentous fungus that grows naturally in a wide variety of temperatures and pH levels. It is frequently utilized in the synthesis of citric acid and other organic acids. A. niger is also a significant organism in traditional fermented foods, and it has been utilized to make food enzymes that have been designated as Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) by the United States Food and Drug Administration. The constraints of A. niger genetic manipulation are discussed, as well as the need to eradicate mycotoxins in industrial strains. The article finishes with an overview of current advances in genetic manipulation and enzyme overproduction tactics, which may assist to increase the efficiency and safety of A. niger as a potential enzyme host in the food industry.

By Renuka Jyothi Shettru, Divya Shrivastava, Sudhir Singh

2023-06-17 Review
A Comprehensive Review of the Pathogenesis and Virulence Factors of E. coli

Escherichia coli are very adaptable microbes that play a significant role in the typical gut microbiota of both humans and animals. This non-pathogenic commensal bacterium has the ability to acquire a variety of mobile genetic components that are comprehensive and include genes for virulence factors is a newly discovered human pathogen that may cause a wide range of extraintestinal and gastrointestinal illnesses. Nine distinct enteric E. coli pathotypes, which range from different gastrointestinal illnesses to infections of the urinary tract, have been thoroughly characterised. These collaboration use a variety of virulence factors and effectors that regulate their transmission and pathogenicity by disrupting the functioning of host cells. This article highlights recent advances in our knowledge of the many viruses linked to the genes that distinct external ecological of gastric harmful E. coli employ to trigger extraintestinal and digestive issues in people.

By Asha Kademane, Meenal Dixit, Vasundhara

2023-06-17 Review
Biocontrol using Sustainable Tool: Opportunities and Challenges

Sustainable agricultural methods are essential to achieving the objective of ending world hunger because of the expanding global population. The agricultural sector is very concerned about both the Modern Environmental Health Hazards (MEHHs) which were troubles to Public Health (PH) caused by insect repellent experience, residue, with the rise in insecticide resistance. Today's farming methods rely on microbial bio-stimulants, which are safer and more productive than synthetic agrochemicals. In this respect, using microorganisms for BioControl (BC) that may stifle insects and phytopathogens is one of the most crucial methods for sustainable agriculture. Understanding these bacteria's role in promoting development as well as the management of the illness is essential since they are being used in the field as biopesticides or biofertilizers, with varied degrees of efficiency. For plant and insect pathogen analysis, we have used Biocontrol analysis. Through the use of advantageous microbes, substances, or healthy cropping practices, BC inhibits plant diseases, boosts plant immunity, and/or modifies the environment.

By Suhas Ballal, Kratika Pathak, Shweta R. Sharma

2023-06-20 Review
Big Data and Different Subspace Clustering Approaches: From social media promotion to genome mapping

In the present age of information technology, information is the most important factor in determining how different paradigms will progress. This information needs to be mined out of a massive computer treasure trove. The rise in the amount of data been analyzed and interpreted is a direct result of the proliferation of more powerful processing platforms, the increase in the amount of storage space available, and the transition toward the use of electronic platforms. A thorough study of Big Data, its characteristics, and the role that Subspace clustering algorithm plays is described in this work. The most important contribution that this paper makes is that it reads a lot of previous research and then makes a thorough presentation about the different ways that other authors have classified subspace clustering methods. In addition, significant algorithms that are capable of acting as a benchmark for any future development have been provided with a short explanation.

By Vijaya Kishore Veparala, Vattikunta Kalpana

2023-07-11 Review
Closing Ventanas to open doors: an ethical approach to public health research in areas of high climate vulnerability

In the context of climate change, the complex relationship between humanity and nature is revealed. This context provides an excellent opportunity to understand the tensions, ethical, and philosophical aspects involved in health research in areas of high climatic vulnerability. To address this problem, the situation of the Concón, Quintero, and Puchuncaví area, one of the five environmental sacrifice zones established in Chile, is used as a case study. After years of studies on the harmful health effects of this industrial center and governmental inaction, the executive power decided to close the Codelco Ventanas Division Smelter. This closure allows us to reflect on the opportunities for developing ethical public health research in areas of high climate vulnerability, in addition to making clear the role of public health professionals under the principle of responsibility, using environmental, climate, and intergenerational justice.

By Macarena Martínez Órdenes

2023-07-02 Review
Clinical and psychological effects post intralesional management with Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum in Peyronie's disease. Bibliographic review

Introduction: Peyronie disease (PD) is an inflammatory and fibrotic disorder affecting the tunica albuginea of the penis that obeys a multifactorial approach. It is characterized by the formation of a plaque of fibrous tissue that produces an angular deformation of the penis, resulting in erectile dysfunction and psychosexual problems in the patient. Intralesional therapy was an option for a long time without convincing results until the implementation of Clostridium histolyticum collagenase (CCH).
Objective: To describe the clinical and psychological results of intralesional intervention with Clostridium histolyticum collagenase in the treatment of PD. Methods: We performed a literature search of updated information in the PubMed database using terms such as Peyronie's disease, penile fibromatosis, and collagenase clostridium histolyticum.
Results:15 investigations were obtained from 2018 to 2023, with a total of 2,844 patients, in all studies improvements in penile correction were reported, in 9 studies reported satisfactory results in IIEF-15 and PDQ, just as the results were influenced by individual characteristics, as well as the modification of the therapeutic protocol or aggregation of adjuvant therapies.
Conclusions: Intralesional therapy with CCH has been shown to be effective with and without the use of concomitant therapies in correcting penile curvature and decreasing psychosexual symptoms in PD from the first therapeutic cycle, as well as in atypical cases, acute stage, and in patients who reported calcification.

By Christopher Hilario Acosta Nuñez, Estefanía Aracelly Reyes Rosero

2023-11-13 Review
Fatphobia: the challenges of humanized care for patients with metabolically unhealthy obesity

Obesity is characterized by being a chronic disease deriving from the accumulation of excessive fat, used by the body as an energy reserve. It is determined by body mass index and, according to data collected from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), there are over a billion obese people worldwide, of all age groups. Despite the high number, the fat body became the target of prejudice, directly reaching the self-image of the obese in a negative way. The demand for the "ideal body" has intensified, and with this situation, there has been a gradual growth by medical specialists. The lack of sensitivity of the professional in question allows discriminatory acts to occur in medical consultations. It is also observed the increase in mobilizations to combat obesity, where the fat person has the obligation to lose weight, discussing serious topics such as obesity and fat phobia, overcoming this theme. Thinking about it, this article sought to analyze how the management of care with obese people occurs and verify the ability of the newly graduated physician to conduct with empathy and professionalism the care of obese patients, preserving moral integrity, physical health and mental illness of the patient in the face of fat phobia. Thus, it was verified that the practice of medical fat phobia occurs in three categories being in the professional relationship in the infrastructure and in the diagnosis and treatment. It is of a lot of importance to stimulate doctor-patient empathy, as it encompasses the emotional, ethical, intellectual and behavioral, in addition to fostering relationship, trust and respect, generating a reciprocal connection that allows benefits, such as improvement and satisfaction in the results of the health treatments of this patient, being an essential conduct for the therapeutic plan.

By Solanche Stefany Molinas Franco, Dayssy Franco, Andrea Elizabeth López Ramirez, Kátia Christina Rodrigues Souza e Silva, Lidiana dos Santos Penha, Livia Cavalcanti Moret, Paloma Iracema Banak Zilch, Anna Luisa Silva de Oliveira, Camila Barros Araújo, Ester Vitória Costa, Gabriel Batista de Souza, Gabriella Patricia Rodrigues de Oliveira, Rebeca Marins Arantes, Stênio Vasconcelos de Farias Filho, Sthephany Caroliny Santos De Jesus, Wilgner Itiel Teixeira Souza

2023-06-20 Review
Education for the informal caregiver of cancer patients in the dying phase

Informal caregivers are those people who carry out the task of caring for sick, disabled or elderly people who cannot fend for themselves in carrying out activities of daily living. The objective was to describe the education of the informal caregiver of the cancer patient in the dying phase based on a bibliographical study. The study was a qualitative investigation since it was documented with articles published in indexed journals in the last five years; highlighting the most evident investigations on the education of the informal caregiver of cancer patients in the dying phase or similar. There is now more recognition of the central role that family carers play and the burdens they bear, but there remain knowledge gaps on how best to support them. The data presumes efforts that have carried out interventions that, despite the fact that they have not been applied in people in the dying phase, could be useful based on the positive of these experiences.

By Verónica Sofia Quenorán Almeida, Grace Pamela López Pérez, Valeria Isabel Espín López, Ana Pamela Pachucho Flores

2023-09-06 Review
The management of technology in the employment integration of individuals with diverse abilities: a bibliographic analysis from a health and well-being perspective.

This article presents a bibliographic analysis that examines the significance of technology management in the occupational integration of individuals with diverse abilities, from a health and well-being perspective. Through the review of various documents, the study identifies how the appropriate implementation of technology can contribute to enhancing the quality of work life for this group of individuals, promoting their inclusion and well-being. Key interventions necessary for ensuring successful occupational integration are highlighted, with a focus on holistic and comprehensive development, as well as the importance of providing quality and relevant education. This health-oriented approach aims to foster an inclusive and equitable work environment, where the diverse abilities of each individual are recognized and valued.

By Matilde Bolaño García

2023-08-16 Review
Secondary data sharing in human subjects research: Ethical aspects

Introduction: Currently, there is a call from the scientific community for a responsible exchange of data, being relevant to promote innovation in research through the reuse of secondary data. However, the data exchange is not free of difficulties since it imposes relevant ethical challenges. On the other hand, the data exchange is also limited by legislative aspects of each country in terms of data privacy; for example, the Chilean legal system is presented.
Objective: To identify the ethical aspects of exchanging secondary data in research with human beings.
Methods: Integrative review. Data sources: WoS, PUBMED, Scopus, and publications were searched between 2017 and 2022.
Results: The final sample consisted of 12 articles, and they were organized according to ethical aspects, concerns of the research subject, and the researcher's position in the exchange of data in research with human beings.
Discussion: The creation of a Data Access Committee (DAC) and an international ethical framework are initiatives that are promoted to advance the exchange of data in research with humans. However, the legal frameworks become relevant in the context of data protection in each country, as is the Chilean case.
Conclusion: Progress must be made in aspects of broad informed consent, which is directly related to the legal framework of each country.

By Javier Rojas-Avila, Katiuska Reynaldos-Grandón

2023-07-12 Review
Relationship between serum vitamin D levels and the risk of developing metabolic syndrome

Introduction: the incidence of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) has increased in recent years and is categorized as a serious global health problem. It is defined as a set of metabolic conditions that increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. While Vitamin D (Vit. D) is a fat-soluble prohormone with altered serum levels focused on vit. D deficiency is a part of the new functions related to various diseases.
Objective: this study aimed to investigate the scientific evidence and determine the relationship between serum vitamin D levels and the risk of developing MetS.
Methods: for the execution of the literature review article, a documentary research method was used through a search for information in journal databases such as SciELO, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Science, and Medline.
Results: the articles investigated provide relevant information on the physiopathology of metabolic syndrome and its various components, as well as the physiopathology of Vit. D deficit and supplementation of the same, evidence was also found in the relationship between Vit. D deficit and MetS.
Conclusion: low serum levels or deficits in vit. D may be related to different components that contribute to the development of MetS. Vitamin D supplementation has significant positive benefits in individuals with MetS.

By Víctor Alfonso López-Chango, Edison Arturo Galárraga Pérez

2023-07-15 Review
Usefulness of lactate dehydrogenase as a predictor of mortality

The enzyme lactate dehydrogenase, or LDH, is the final product of metabolism in all body cells. It can be detected once it passes into the extracellular space due to a pathological state such as tissue injury or necrosis. It is produced in different body organs under five different isoenzymatic forms LDH1, LDH2, LDH3, LDH4, and LDH5. A literature review was carried out to establish the validity of lactate dehydrogenase as a predictor of mortality through the correct measurement of this enzyme in the laboratory and, simultaneously, to provide information to health personnel on its proper interpretation. The standardized method allows the measurement of this enzyme; through the fundamental method of continuous monitoring, we measure the disappearance of NADH, for which two reagents are required, pyruvate and NADH.
Additionally, it is required that the pH is 7.4. The wavelength to be used for lactate dehydrogenase is 340nm. From 2020, LDH began to be used as an indicator of the development of severe disease and as a predictor of mortality in patients with covid-19, thanks to a proven relationship between elevated LDH levels and a worse prognosis in patients with this pathology. Although there are adverse factors that can modify LDH levels, this does not preclude using the enzyme as a predictor of mortality.

By Andy Gustavo Sánchez-Sánchez, Ana Gabriela Pacha Jara

2023-08-02 Review
The influence of personalized and precision medicine on the nursing profession

Several expectations concerning the effect of molecular biology studies on the Precision-Medicine (PM) have been aroused by the significant investment and growth of this field over the past few decades, particularly after the end of the Human Genome Project. To attain the novel criteria for maintenance, the omics sciences should be involved in the field of nursing, particularly in nursing healthcare. The development of functional genomics study, which collectively comprises the omics sciences includes epigenomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and transcriptomics has been made possible by enhanced methods built on structural genomics understanding. The recent issue is to turn this more comprehensive body of data into therapeutic advantages for patients, such as extra exact diagnoses, treatment, and care which is adapted to the particular requirements of individuals and communities. Integrating omics sciences into educational and professional activities is a significant barrier for nursing, as it prevents nurses from being autonomously, securely, and scientifically empowered to provide tailored care to patients and their families who rely on the PM. The article discusses the impact of PM and the challenges it faces in clinical practice.

By Nayana Borah, Vijimol G, Heena Baria

2023-08-02 Review
The Possibilities of Gene Drives for Managing Populations and Controlling Diseases

The technical limitations and the use of gene drives to address ecological problems by modifying all populations of wild species remain primarily speculative. Here, we examine the possibility that RNA-guided gene drives based on the CRISPR nuclease Cas9 could be used as an all-encompassing approach for introducing changed features into natural populations over a long period. We outline potential capabilities and possible disadvantages and offer new preventative measures to stem from the propagation of genes and undo genetic modifications. Editing the sexual animal population would significantly benefit both people and the environment. For instance, RNA-guided gene drives may stop the spread of illness, assist farming by correcting bug and weed chemicals and resistance to herbicides, and manage harmful invasive species. However, each prospective use needs to be carefully evaluated due to the likelihood of unfavorable ecological repercussions and the near inevitability of dissemination beyond political boundaries. To investigate the responsible application of this now hypothetical technology, we want serious, inclusive, educated public conversations.

By Vijay Upadhye J, Uzma Noor Shah, Basavaraj Mudhol

2023-08-02 Review
The Influence of Developments in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine on Healthcare Advancement and Evolution

The area of regenerative therapy will undergo a revolution thanks to 3D bioprinting, which holds enormous potential for the bioprinting of artificial tissue and organs. The present research explores the potential synergies between 3D bioprinting and current developments in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Before 3D bioprinting is extensively used in organotypic structures for regenerative medicine, a number of obstacles must be solved. This places a significant burden on society in terms of providing care for those who have deteriorating organs and debilitating diseases. Researchers and medical experts are developing medications and technology that can repair tissues and even generate fresh ones in order to solve this problem. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strive to create new tissues and organs while also curing damaged or sick ones by fusing technology and biological principles. substantial breakthroughs in these domains have a substantial influence on 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs. The area of regenerative medicine might undergo a radical transformation thanks to the use of 3D bioprinting, which makes it possible to build new tissues and organs. The relationship between recent developments in tissue engineering, 3D bioprinting, and regenerative medicine is investigated in this paper. Before 3D bioprinting can be widely used to produce organotypic structures for regenerative medicine, a number of problems must be overcome.

By Geetika Madan Patel, Nayana Borah, Gaurav Kumar

2023-08-06 Review
Exploring the Contribution of Engineering in Enhancing Workflow and Efficiency in Nursing

Complex health concerns demand a very competent solution that incorporates groups of experts from several fields. When the biomedical engineering viewpoint is extended to contain nursing's real-world viewpoint, there are opportunities for improved technology-nurse interactions and eventual innovations. The finest arrangement for a competent nurse engineer who may consider cutting-edge and original ideas which can enhance patient care and results is found in dual nursing engineering degree programs. An analysis of the literature gives background information on innovation and engineering in nursing, justifies the construction of two ground-breaking joint degrees, and provides a description of those programs. These ground-breaking initiatives will progress medical technology while maximizing the nursing profession's potential to contribute to the development and use of original ideas. Additionally, by giving students who are enrolled in separate Bachelor of Science in Nursing interdisciplinary training and exposure, they can advance their knowledge and skills. If nurses are not actively involved in the discovery and design of patient care devices, significant chances for patient care enhancement are missing. To take advantage of nurse creativity and produce improvements in patient care, creative nurse and engineer cooperation are required. This article's main goal is to highlight two cutting-edge biomedical engineering and nursing collaborations that aim to train innovative professionals and create novel knowledge.

By Zulieka Homavazir, Beemkumar Nagappan, Arti Singh

2023-08-22 Review
Biological markers in alcoholic liver disease

Alcoholic liver disease is characterized by liver damage caused by long-term excessive alcohol consumption. Alcohol is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and primarily metabolized in the liver, where hepatocytes accumulate toxins and experience increased oxidation, resulting in substances that can harm liver tissue. Alcohol metabolism in the liver occurs through three metabolic pathways: the first pathway occurs in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes, the second occurs in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and the enzyme catalase mediates the last one. Common alcohol-related liver conditions include simple alcoholic steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis, and cirrhosis. For the study of alcohol-related liver disease, it is recommended to determine biological markers such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Therefore, the development of this literature review is of great importance as it is considered useful to investigate the biomarkers that can be used to detect alcoholic liver disease, considering that alcohol addiction is currently a highly uncontrollable problem worldwide.

By Shirley Estefania Naranjo Yucailla, Ana Gabriela Pacha Jara

2023-09-12 Review
Unlocking the healing spectrum: a narrative review fusing insights from internal medicine, dermatology, and plastic surgery

Introduction: Wound healing and tissue regeneration are complex processes influenced by systemic health, local wound environment, and surgical interventions. Despite advances in medical science, non-healing wounds and scarring remain significant clinical challenges.
Objective: The objective of this review is to synthesize the contributions of internal medicine, dermatology, and plastic surgery to wound healing and tissue regeneration, highlighting the importance of interdisciplinary approaches in optimizing wound care strategies and patient outcomes.
Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases to identify relevant articles on wound healing and tissue regeneration, focusing on the contributions of internal medicine, dermatology, and plastic surgery. The review synthesizes evidence from these studies, emphasizing the importance of systemic health, skin physiology, and surgical interventions in optimizing wound healing and tissue regeneration.
Results: This review highlights the complementary roles of internal medicine, dermatology, and plastic surgery in addressing systemic health, skin physiology, and surgical interventions for wound healing and tissue regeneration. Internal medicine addresses systemic health factors that impact wound repair, dermatology focuses on skin physiology and pathology, and plastic surgery provides techniques for functional and aesthetic restoration of tissues. The review emphasizes the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration, patient-centered care, health disparities, and technological advancements in optimizing the healing spectrum.
Conclusions: Unlocking the healing spectrum requires a comprehensive and interdisciplinary approach that integrates insights from internal medicine, dermatology, and plastic surgery. Addressing systemic health, skin physiology, and surgical interventions is crucial for wound healing and tissue regeneration.

By Humberto Bravo Jiménez, Néstor Israel Quinapanta Castro, Lizbeth Denisse Casco Luzuriaga, Ximena Gabriela Gordón Villagrán, Daniela Stephanie Montenegro Salas, Sainly del Carmen Montiel Fleire, María de Jesús Mendoza López, Erik Manuel Cushpa Quinapanta, Angelitte Arlette Bravo Montes

2023-07-30 Review
Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa before and during the covid-19 pandemic, a review in Latin America

Introduction: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative aerobic bacillus, negative for glucose and lactose fermentation. It is commonly isolated from the environment, including contaminated water, in the community, and also in healthcare settings. The purpose of this study is to collect information of the distribution of genes conferring carbapenem resistance in Latin America.
Methods: This is a literature reviews that conducted from January 2016 to April 2023. Databases such as PubMed, Scielo, Elsevier, Google Scholar, BioMed Central (BMC), and official databases from each country were utilized to collect data on the frequency of P. aeruginosa.
Results: A total of 35 articles were analyzed, finding that Peru reports over 65% of carbapenem resistance in P. aeruginosa. Statistical analysis using the t-Student identified that Ecuador, Argentina, Colombia, Peru, Paraguay, Venezuela, Nicaragua, Brazil, and Chile show a statistically significant difference (p≤0.05) over the years. In addition, the genes identified in Latin America that confer resistance to carbapenems are 〖bla〗_IMP ,〖bla〗_VIM, 〖bla〗_NDM, 〖bla〗_GES , 〖bla〗_KPC, 〖bla〗_OXA y 〖bla〗_SPM.
Conclusions: It was identified that the prevalence of this microorganism has increased before and during the pandemic in Latin America, probably due to the indiscriminate use of antibiotics as empirical therapy in respiratory infections.

By Edison Javier Tapia Pilamonta, Evelyn Katherine Jaramillo Ruales

2023-07-24 Review
Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in nosocomial infections, a review in Latin America

Objective: This study aimed to determine the presence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in nosocomial infections in Latin America and to analyze its frequency and tendency in Latin America.
Methods: This study is a literature review; it was carried out through exhaustive research in different databases, Analytical and descriptive cohort studies, meta-analysis, and some clinical trials related to the presence of nosocomial infections caused by carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae and the genes responsible for this resistance were included.
Results: Twenty-two articles were selected from different databases from Latin American countries; In addition, the percentages of resistance to carbapenems in K. pneumoniae in these countries and its trend before and during the COVID-19 pandemic were identified.
Conclusions Resistance to carbapenems in K. pneumoniae was determined as a public health problem in Latin America, considered a limiting factor in treating patients with infections caused by Enterobacter. In addition, it was identified that KPC is the main gene responsible for carbapenem resistance.

By Jennifer Dayana Erazo Bravo, Evelyn Katherine Jaramillo Ruales

2023-09-09 Review
Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii complex: a review in Latin America

Introduction: Acinetobacter baaumannii complex is a pathogen that causes nosocomial infections in immunocompromised patients, the microorganism is resistant to carbapenemics and is difficult to control in health units.
Methods: This is a literature review on carbapenemics resistance of Acinetobacter baaumannii complex in Latin America. Different databases were used: Pubmed, Google Scholar, Scielo, Dialnet and Redalyc, for the selection of articles the inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. In addition, the t-Student test was used to find significant values.
Results: Resistance to carbapenemics in A. baumannii complex is reported in all Latin American countries, predominantly the group of oxacillin family genes (OXA-23 and OXA-51), in contrast metallo-beta-lactamases are not very frequent and has been identified in fewer isolates; however, Peru and Argentina showed high percentages of resistance; also the samples that present more isolates of this microorganism are tracheal aspirates.
Conclusions: This literature review shows the situation of resistance to carbapenemics in Latin America, the different genes identified have conferred high resistance to this microorganism. It is necessary to maintain surveillance of this microorganism in order to investigate new therapeutic alternatives against this pathogen.

By Christian Ivan Manobanda Nata, Evelyn Katherine Jaramillo Ruales

2023-07-21 Review
PERC Prediction and D-dimer in the diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism

Introduction: Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a life-threatening condition requiring immediate detection and management. The Pulmonary Embolism Rule-Out Criteria (PERC) and D-dimer have emerged as effective tools for PE identification. Objective: Our analysis aims to explore existing studies on the efficiency of the PERC rule and D-dimer in diagnosing acute PE and determine whether their combined application enhances diagnostic accuracy and risk stratification in individuals suspected of having PE. Methods: A comprehensive search was conducted in medical databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library, to identify relevant research evaluating the PERC rule and D-dimer in identifying PE. Results: Thirty-five studies were included in the literature review. The majority demonstrated that the PERC rule and D-dimer are valuable tools for identifying PE, with high sensitivity and negative predictive value. The PERC approach is particularly useful in individuals with low clinical risk, while D-dimer is more effective when combined with clinical probability scores. The combined use of both can increase specificity and optimize clinical decision-making. Conclusion: The literature review supports that the PERC rule and D-dimer can enhance diagnostic accuracy and risk stratification, enabling more effective clinical decision-making and avoiding additional imaging tests in individuals at low risk of PE. Further research is needed to refine further the implementation of these tools in medical practice and specific population groups.

By Marlon Andrés López García, Juan Andrés Barriga Miño, María Belén Medina Rodríguez, Josselin Karina Paredes Acosta, Estefania Abigail Benavides Tutillo, Yessenia del Cisne Gaona Bermeo

2023-09-07 Review
Microalbuminuria as an indicator of kidney damage in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Introduction: Diabetic nephropathy is considered one of the most serious complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and one of the main causes of end-stage renal failure. It is considered that between 20% and 40% of people with diabetes mellitus present some degree of nephropathy during their evolution and one of the first indicators of diabetic nephropathy is microalbuminuria, which are small amounts of albumin that are present in the urine.
Methods: It is a bibliographic review study of the literature found between 2017 and 2023 in which databases such as Google Scholar, Scielo, Pubmed, Elsevier related to studies of microalbuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and suspicion of kidney damage were obtained.
Results: A total of 35 scientific articles were analyzed where it was determined that, currently, the early determination of microalbuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus plays a very important role since this analysis is specifically related to kidney disease.
Conclusions: It will continue that the value of microalbuminuria is the most appropriate method to identify patients who could present diabetic nephropathy, for which there are semiquantitative tests such as the micral-test, and quantitative tests, among which are ichroma™ Microalbumin, microalbumin-turbilatex, which allow the exact amount of this analyte to be calculated.

By Milton Israel Navas Atiaja, Alvaro Paul Moina Veloz

2023-07-25 Review
Preventable hospitalization in chronic degenerative diseases: arterial hypertension and diabetes

Introduction: Chronic degenerative diseases are physically and/or mentally degrading, causing an imbalance that affects organs and tissues.
Objective: To describe the importance of preventable hospitalization in chronic degenerative diseases, diabetes, and arterial hypertension. Method: Systematic literature review and selection of articles using the PRISMA method.
Results: 12 publications were chosen according to search keywords, inclusion, and exclusion criteria established for selection.
Conclusions: The application of a timely health system through Primary Health Care reduces rates of complications, hospitalizations, and mortality of patients diagnosed with Arterial Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus through coverage, detection, and follow-up of cases, therapeutic adherence, frequent controls, education and self-care of the patient, provided by the nursing staff fulfilling their role of promotion, prevention, cure, and rehabilitation.

By Ana Belén Guamán Tacuri, Grace Pamela López Pérez

2023-07-25 Review
Role of nursing in humanized delivery care in pregnancy women

Introduction: One of every woman's desires is centered on the idea of becoming a mother. However, this can be a very unpleasant stage for the pregnant woman since the havoc and complications that she may have during her gestation period could cause serious injuries to the baby and threaten the mother's physical health.
Objective: To describe the actions of the nursing role and to know the process for improving humanized childbirth.
Methodology: A literature review was carried out with a qualitative approach.
Results: Humanized childbirth is key to understanding each of the women who go through the gestation process to become mothers; health personnel, both doctors and nurses, must fulfill their humanistic role to satisfy women in aspects such as their beliefs and needs.
Conclusions: The woman should be listened to, valued, and guided by the specialists because humanized childbirth is a good option to respect each party's rights.

By Rosario Elizabeth Abril Beltrán, María Marlene Chisag Guamán, Adriana Elizabeth Campos Arroba, Karen Esthefania Benítez Pazmiño, Mónica Alexandra Ocaña Guevara

2023-07-25 Review
Alternative therapies in the management of patients with Parkinson's disease

Introduction: Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative pathology characterized by three motor signs: resting tremor, bradykinesia, and muscle rigidity.
Objective: To investigate the existing alternative therapies in treating and managing patients with Parkinson's disease.
Methods: Bibliographic research based on a search for information focused on alternative therapies in managing patients with Parkinson's disease. Results: The most commonly used alternative therapies for Parkinson's Disease are occupational therapy, physiotherapy, music therapy, art, and mainly physical activity such as dance, swimming, Tai Chi, Yoga, Qi Gong, and stretching.
Conclusions: Complementary or alternative therapies are a good option to improve motor and non-motor symptoms and thus provide a better quality of life in Parkinson's patients.

By Ángel Rafael Borja Cabrera, Valeria Isabel Espín López, Silvia Graciela Morales Mayorga, María Aurora Simbaña Quishpi, Carola del Rocío Cortéz Flores, Soraya Margoth Heredia Nugra

2023-08-20 Review
Immunotherapy in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer

Background: Lung cancer is one of the cancers with the highest incidence and mortality in the world, and its subtype, non-small cell cancer, is responsible for 85% of cases, expressing itself as a major public health problem. In this context, immunotherapy has been gaining more and more space in the medical sciences as a new treatment option for cancer.
Objective: To understand the dynamics of immunotherapy and its attributes as a viable possibility for alternative or complementary lung cancer treatment.
Methods: An integrative literature review was performed using scientific articles seeking to elucidate questions about the use of immunotherapy in lung cancer treatment.
Results: Immunotherapy shows promise, considerably reducing the neoplastic activity, and improving patient survival, as long as it is used to complement other therapies, such as chemotherapy. However, despite all the advances, it is still not very accessible to oncologic patients.

By Jessyca Barros Fernandes, Leidiane Lima de Oliveira, Mariana Oliveira Teixeira, Rayson Adriano Monteiro Fernandes, Taianne Criss Meneses Silva de Sousa

2023-09-11 Review
MicroRNA for the early detection of type 2 diabetes mellitus: literature review

Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a glucose metabolism disorder of multiple etiology, representing more than 90% of diabetes cases around the world. Current studies have proposed microRNAs (miRNAs) as possible early biomarkers of the disease.
Objective: review the literature on the use of miRNAs as biomarkers in the early detection of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM).
Methods: Comprehensive searches of scientific databases were carried out and nine studies that met the inclusion criteria were selected. These studies examined the expression profiles of specific miRNAs and their utility as diagnostic and prognostic markers.
Results: They revealed that certain miRNAs, such as miR-21, miR-122, miR-148b-3p, miR-27a-3p and miR-135, showed significant changes in their expression in patients with T2DM and prediabetes compared to healthy individuals. These miRNAs were also associated with key metabolic processes, such as the regulation of insulin signaling, insulin resistance, and inflammation.
Conclusions: These findings support the potential of miRNAs as biomarkers for early detection, prognosis, and management of T2DM and prediabetes. However, further research is required to validate and better understand the clinical relevance of miRNAs in these metabolic diseases.

By Joselyn Lissette Martínez Altamirano, Ángel Geovanny Romo López

2023-12-06 Review
Influence of a Teaching Module on Adolescent Girls' Understanding and Perception of Early Menarche

The commencement of menarche, which signifies the first occurrence of menstrual bleeding, holds considerable importance in the lives of young girls going through adolescence. This research aimed to evaluate the influence of a Teaching module on the understanding and outlook pertaining to early menarche in adolescent girls. Employing a quantitative research design, a sample of 300 participants was chosen using uncomplicated random selection methods. The investigation employed a structured knowledge questionnaire and a five-point rating system to assess participants' comprehension and perception. The experimental group initially perceived early menarche moderately (68%). Results from their first assessment indicated 45.3% lacked sufficient knowledge, 42.7% had moderately acceptable knowledge, and 12% demonstrated satisfactory knowledge. Impressively, the subsequent evaluation showed a substantial improvement, with 97.3% now possessing adequate knowledge, and only 2.7% retaining moderately acceptable knowledge. Conversely, the control group's initial review displayed 83.3% inadequate knowledge and 16.7% moderately acceptable knowledge. Following the intervention, the control group had 72.7% maintaining insufficient knowledge and 26.7% displaying moderate perception. 32% have a favorable perception. Post-module, 92% showed a good perception, 8% remained moderate. The module effectively enhanced knowledge and perception on early menarche. This study underscores the pivotal role of targeted educational interventions in amplifying knowledge and perception concerning early menarche. The outcomes highlight the potential benefits of such interventions in equipping adolescent girls with essential information and awareness to navigate this transformative phase in their lives effectively.

By L Motcha Rakkini, VH Hema

2023-08-27 Review
Tumor marker analysis in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors GIST

Introduction: GISTs are sarcomas arising from interstitial cells of Cajal that account for about 1% of all gastrointestinal tumors. The diagnosis of GIST involves imaging tests and invasive determinations such as endoscopy and biopsy. KIT and PDGFRA immunohistochemistry staining can detect 95% of GISTs in biopsy samples. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a crucial role in angiogenesis physiology, immunology, and neural origins of GIST biology, and may be able to provide a valuable prognostic clue.
Objective: This research aims to establish tumor markers (miRNAs) for the early diagnosis of GIST patients.
Methods: A qualitative approach was used, of a bibliographic-documentary type, and through consultation in various databases found in indexed scientific journals.
Results: miR-221, miR-222 play a functional, diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic role in GIST. The miR221/222 ratio is considered a genetic biomarker to detect the risk of developing GIST and hsa-miR-218-5p was the best predictor in the development of GIST as well as hsa-miR-146a-5p, hsa-miR- 222-3p, hsa-miR-126-3p and hsamiR-218-5p.
Conclusions: New non-invasive diagnostic techniques for GIST could become a valuable strategy for early diagnosis and monitoring of patient treatment.

By Karol Mayte Chicaiza Jacome, Elizabeth Proaño Pérez

2023-10-08 Review
Precision in restoration: new frontiers in surgical techniques for complex tissue reconstruction

Introduction: Precision in restoration epitomizes the confluence of meticulous surgical techniques and cutting-edge technology in the realm of complex tissue reconstruction. With the advancing frontiers of medical science, there is an imperative need to scrutinize and synthesize the burgeoning literature on precise surgical interventions for effective tissue restoration and improved patient outcomes.
Objective: This review aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of precision in restoration for complex tissue reconstruction by evaluating innovative surgical techniques and technologies, assessing their efficacy, and identifying challenges and future directions in this dynamic field.
Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted using databases like PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar, utilizing keywords and MeSH terms related to precision in restoration and complex tissue reconstruction. Data synthesis involved descriptive and thematic analyses, with a careful assessment of the quality and level of evidence provided by each study.
Results: The review elucidates the paradigm shift towards precision in restoration, spotlighting advancements in surgical techniques, technology integration (including robotics, AI, and 3D printing), and bioengineering breakthroughs. A collaborative and patient-centered approach emerged as pivotal, with a growing emphasis on personalized medicine, patient education, and engagement. The discussion also encompasses challenges like accessibility, economic considerations, required professional training, and ethical dilemmas, offering insights into the multifaceted implications of adopting precision in restoration for tissue reconstruction.
Conclusions: Precision in restoration for complex tissue reconstruction heralds a promising future, characterized by technological innovation, surgical excellence, and improved patient care.

By Marcos Manuel Vásquez Mendoza, Juan Carlos Santillán Lima, Silvia Valeska Delgado Quezada, Bryan Martín Morales Morales, Raiza Stephanie Robayo Herrera, Daniel Esteban Ortega Larrea, Jeann Carlo Moncayo Terán, Joselyn Maritza Vargas Paladines, Diana Aracely Sánchez Alquinga

2023-12-11 Review
Use of Robotic Rehabilitation in Patients with Diseases of the Nervous System

Introduction: The current world is governed on scientific fronts by the advances to which technology is subjected in the development and implementation of various advantages for society. When continuous social changes are observed and analyzed, the possibility of concluding that technology plays the main role in the current paradigm becomes visible.
Objective: describe the use of robotics in rehabilitation in diseases of the nervous system
Methods: A review of the literature was carried out in the month of November 2023 through access to the databases Scopus, PubMed, Dialnet, Scielo, and the search manager Google Scholar version 2022, with the strategies: ((theft *) AND (medicine)), ((rehabilitation) AND (technological advances)) and ((medicine) AND (stroke) AND (rehabilitation) AND (theft*) AND (technology)) and their translations into the English language, limited the search to the last 5 years
Results: The sensory system (SS) comprises a complex organization that informs about the development of the world around the person and the person themselves - exteroceptive and interoceptive receptors -, through the integration of the senses - hearing, vision, touch, smell and taste.
Conclusions: robotic rehabilitation in neurological diseases represents an extraordinary advance, since it reduces the physical load of specialists, which allows greater use of them and contributes substantially to the more effective and interactive implementation of the routines to be carried out by patients.

By Tania Cecibel Cañarte-Rodríguez, Pilar Asunción Soledispa Cañarte, Betty Janeth Soledispa Cañarte, Glenda Marcela Sarmiento Tómala, Leonardo Pablo García Franco

2023-10-12 Review
Analysis of the accreditation status of dialysis centers in the Maule region, Chile

Introduction: With the health reform in Chile, quality assurance arises, which through accreditation processes seeks to improve patient care, making permanent changes in the processes and safety culture of health institutions.
Objective: Analyze the current state of accreditation of dialysis centers in the Maule region of Chile.
Methodology: Quantitative, non-experimental design, descriptive, retrospective and longitudinal. Sixteen dialysis centers in the region were analyzed and the information was obtained from the official site of the Superintendence of Health, through the Registry of Accredited Providers.
Results: Of the total number of dialysis centers reviewed, 93.4% accredited with 100% compliance with the mandatory characteristics and only six re-accredited with 100% compliance with the total characteristics that apply to them as providers and two have expired accreditation.
Conclusions: Accreditation processes are sufficient tools to improve the quality and health safety of dialysis patients, thanks to the rigor and continuity of the process, but in order to maintain it, it should be aimed at a change in safety culture.

By Nevenka Roa Contreras, Diego Silva Jiménez, Alicia Infante Peñafiel

2023-09-28 Review
Diagnosis and Evaluation of Pediatric Urolithiasis

Introduction: The presence of urinary stones in children is a concerning condition in pediatric nephrology. An accurate and timely diagnosis is crucial for effective management and prevention of complications. This article provides a comprehensive overview of diagnostic and evaluation approaches, including various imaging techniques, laboratory tests, and clinical assessments used in diagnosis, their strengths, and limitations. Understanding the complexities of diagnosis contributes to improved patient outcomes and guides healthcare professionals.
Objective: To delve into different methods and approaches used for diagnosing and evaluating pediatric urolithiasis, along with technological and scientific advancements in the field.
Methods: The research method involved analyzing and synthesizing scientific literature. Relevant studies and articles were collected and findings compared to identify patterns and trends in diagnosis and evaluation.
Results: Results include a compilation of relevant studies, detailed analysis of diagnostic methods, identification of techniques, technological advancements, and common trends in pediatric urolithiasis evaluation.
Conclusions: Pediatric urolithiasis requires early detection and proper management to prevent complications. Treatment options vary from conservative to invasive. Multidisciplinary collaboration (urologists, nephrologists, and pediatricians) is crucial. The use of mathematical models in diagnosis provides valuable tools for early detection and clinical decision-making. Integrating clinical data and risk factors identifies high-risk children, improving long-term clinical outcomes.

By Jeaneth Maricela Haro Chávez, Esteban Mauricio Castillo Noboa, Juan Carlos Santillán Lima, Dayssy Viviana Crespo Vallejo, Lisseth Gabriela Ríos Latorre, Francisco Javier Maygualema León

2023-11-13 Review
PCSK9 inhibition: a new alternative to reduce cholesterol and prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

Introduction: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. One of the key factors in its development is elevated LDL cholesterol. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a molecule that regulates LDL cholesterol levels.
Objective: The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the evidence surrounding PCSK9 inhibition as an effective therapy for reducing cholesterol and preventing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
Methodology: A comprehensive literature review was conducted using medical databases, including PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library. Search terms included "PCSK9," "PCSK9 inhibitors," "cholesterol," "LDL," and "atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease."
Results: Evidence suggests that PCSK9 inhibitors are effective in reducing LDL cholesterol levels in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Several clinical trials have demonstrated that these drugs can reduce LDL cholesterol by up to 60% compared to placebo. Additionally, PCSK9 inhibitors appear to have a favorable safety profile and are well-tolerated by most patients. Several studies have also shown that PCSK9 inhibitors can reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with pre-existing atherosclerotic disease.
Conclusion: PCSK9 inhibitors represent a promising therapeutic strategy for LDL cholesterol control and prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Future studies should focus on determining the long-term effect of these drugs on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and exploring ways to improve access and affordability to these therapies.

By Gabriela Alexandra Solano Peña, Gabriela Fernanda Acurio Armas, Gabriela Alejandra Díaz Teran, Susana Patricia Palacios Serrano, Andrea Carolina Cobo Reyes, Daniel Albino Pullas Taboada, Gissel Katherine Carvajal Chango

2023-10-15 Review
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a limiting disease

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common type of arthritis in children and adolescents with a chronic course and unknown etiology. The incidence and prevalence of the disease are variable. Worldwide, its incidence ranges between 1.6-23 cases/100,000 children under 16 years of age/year and its prevalence between 3.8-400/100,000. The complications that occur in these patients range from delayed growth and osteoporosis to alteration of several organs. Treatment of JIA requires anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory medications and physical therapy.
Methods: Descriptive and retrospective bibliography review by compiling available and updated information in databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed and Science Direct. The inclusion criteria were: articles published from 2019 to the current date (2023), topics directly related to the proposed title such as idiopathic arthritis, growth restriction, complications, articles available and accessible to the public. Likewise. They excluded those articles that had limited accessibility, incomplete texts and inconclusive research results. Each article must be carefully analyzed taking into account the different points of view of each author.
Results: One in three children with JIA has growth retardation, the severity is predicted by the low age of onset of the disease and the long duration of the disease. Correlation and regression analysis showed that low age at diagnosis and disease duration are significant predictors of the severity of stunting.
Conclusions: Growth disturbance is an important complication of JIA, with important implications for both physical and psychosocial health, and its growth can also slow down. It is a major concern for families of young children with JIA and an additional challenge for older children and adolescents facing the impact of the chronic disease.

By Joselyn Vaca, Roberto Acosta

2023-10-16 Review
Psychological Well-being and Technostress: Challenges in Health and Job Performance Among English Teachers

Introduction: This literature review article adopts a deductive method, a socio-critical paradigm, and a qualitative descriptive approach, using a thematic prose framework. Its objective is to provide a theoretical exposition on technostress and its impact on the work effectiveness of university teachers in Peru, especially in the post-pandemic context.
Objectives: Through a comprehensive examination of the literature, the study explores the various facets of technostress, analyzes its consequences, and examines its impact on the emotional well-being of Peruvian educators. Furthermore, it analyzes its outcomes and examines its influence on the emotional well-being of Peruvian educators.
Method: The research is based on a literature review and qualitative analysis of relevant sources.
Results: Factors such as information overload, frequent interruptions, deficiencies in technological competence, technological dependence, and technical issues contribute to technostress among university teachers. The phenomenon intensified in the post-pandemic context, with the shift to online education and associated technological challenges.
Conclusions: The technostress experienced by university educators negatively affects their emotional well-being, manifesting as anxiety, fatigue, impaired interpersonal relationships, sleep disorders, and decreased job performance. To mitigate its impact, specific interventions and support measures are required for these teachers, promoting their emotional well-being and prudent technology use in the post-pandemic context.

By Jhonny Richard Rodriguez-Barboza, Flor de María Sánchez-Aguirre, Elba María Andrade-Díaz, Lida Vásquez-Pajuelo, Doris Isabel Goigochea-Parks, Lourdes Ivonne del Carmen Alcaide-Aranda

2023-12-09 Review
Ethical considerations for research with sexual and gender minorities

Introduction: Research on sexual and gender minorities has shown that stigmatization has significant negative effects. Research that compares the human rights situation between countries or continents is gaining more and more strength, however, this has been gradual, they are still little studied and are underrepresented. This group is considered a population at risk and a vulnerable group due to recurrent discrimination, stigmatization, inequities and injustice.
Objective: To analyze the current ethical considerations involving research on sexual and gender minorities, and the protection granted to them as study subjects based on the ethical criteria proposed by Ezekiel J. Emanuel.
Results: There is a lack of evidence in research that addresses ethical considerations in sexual and gender minorities, especially in those continents where they are prohibited from freedom of expression and are criminalized. Respect for individuals and protection of participants' welfare must remain the highest priority. Researchers are encouraged to maintain research on sexual and gender minorities even though there may be obstruction and delays in approval by the relevant agencies.
Conclusion: Researchers should orient their studies based on Ezekiel J. Emanuel's seven tenets, in addition to considering the suggestions made in this review. This will lead to methodologically valid research, maintaining the respect and value that community participants deserve.

By Camilo Andrés Silva-Sánchez, Víctor Pedrero Castillo

2023-12-08 Review
Gender biases in university bibliography: an analysis in the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Chile

Introduction: Sexism in education contributes to perpetuate gender inequalities in the training of professionals. Despite institutional efforts to eradicate it, there is no evidence of results in formal curricula. This study seeks to evaluate the presence of sexism and androcentrism in the curricular undergraduate programs of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Chile. Methods: The curricular programs were compiled and a database was created with their compulsory bibliography, considering variables such as career, level, subject credits, gender of the teacher in charge of the course (PEC, Profesor Encargado del Curso in Spanish) and gender of the first authorship. A stratified analysis was performed to compare the number and proportion of authorships in the faculty, in addition to using a logistic regression model to identify the most influential variables. Results: We obtained 1,138 bibliographic references, mostly written by men (66.3%; n=604). A predominance of male authors was observed in all areas of training, especially in Sciences. The careers with the highest proportion of female authors were those that are feminized. The level and credits of the subjects, the gender of the PEC and the year of publication, did not have a significant influence. Conclusions: The results indicate the presence of sexism and androcentrism biases in the mandatory bibliography of the undergraduate programs of the Faculty of Medicine. These findings highlight the importance of promoting more equitable and inclusive education, actively addressing the presence of gender stereotypes in curricular content.

By Silvana Jiménez, Catalina Muñoz, Pascal Vega, Felipe Medina Marín, Sandra Flores-Alvarado

2023-12-09 Review
Implementation of technological devices used by occupational therapists in upper extremity rehabilitation after a stroke

Rehabilitation with exoskeletons in people with acquired brain injury is a topic of interest for researchers, since these robotic devices seek to recover the sensorimotor sequelae caused by the injury and improve the performance of the injured patient in activities of daily living. The objective of this study was to identify the contributions provided by the implementation of exoskeleton devices used by occupational therapy in the rehabilitation of upper limb in patients with stroke sequelae. The method used was a narrative review, with search strategies in the following databases: Scopus, Science Direct, Google Scholar and Pubmed. Articles published in English, Spanish and Portuguese were considered, with keywords in the titles and/or abstract. A total of 578 articles were identified and 7 were those that met the criteria for inclusion in this research. The results showed that exoskeleton-type devices enhance conventional rehabilitation, with glove-type exoskeletons, assisted limb and brain-computer interface powered exoskeletons standing out in this process. These devices, when incorporated by occupational therapists in rehabilitation, have shown to generate improvements in motor functionality and manipulative dexterity, which have been evidenced both in acute and chronic stages, generating an increase in the performance of users in the performance of their daily life activities.

By Paola Ruiz-Sáez, Lorena Velásquez-Oberreuter, Nicole Torres Zúñiga, Michelle Lapierre Acevedo

2022-03-13 Case Report
Septic shock of abdominal urinary focus after renal surgery

Introduction: The next case report corresponds to a female patient of 30 years and 12 days old from the canton of La Troncal and mixed ethnicity on admission to the right lumbar fossa with the presence of a 5 cm orifice with a large amount of fetid purulent content that evolves to a diagnosis of septic shock of urinary vs. abdominal origin, acute perforated abdomen and retroperitoneal collection, for which on November 30, 2022 an exploratory laparotomy, ileostomy, right hemicolectomy, right nephrectomy, retroperitoneal collection drainage and drain placement were performed. Jackson Pratt's patient remains under sedoanalgesia with midazolam and fentanyl RASS -4. She is coupled to mechanical ventilation, afebrile with antibiotic therapy with meropenem and vancomycin, who presents elevated acute phase reactants with rising leukocytosis and neutrophilia. In addition, the culture revealed the presence of Gram-negative bacilli in the surgical wound.
Case report: to present a complex clinical case where the post-surgical patient's condition was complicated, causing septic shock
Conclusion: post-surgical complications are rare; however, they can be deadly and very complicated to treat, which urges health professionals to take the necessary measures to minimize this postoperative risk.

By Claudia Gabriela Clavijo Rosales, Paula Cristina Abad Arias, Johanna Gabriela Alvarez Ordoñez, Melany Tatiana Pacheco Peláez, Robinson Sebastián Ormaza Arévalo

2023-01-20 Case Report
Blue finger syndrome as a paraneoplasic manifestation: case report

We currently know that cancer is a prothrombotic condition altered by certain coagulation factors. Due to this malignity, pro-coagulation factors contribute to a metastasis-favoring hypercoagulability condition are secreted. Besides, there is evidence of a higher excretion of thrombin, favoring the formation of coagula. Here the clinical case of a 65-year-old man with multiple diseases is presented. He went to the doctor because of neurological manifestations consisting in left facial paralysis, and deviation of the commissure of the lips towards the left. In addition, the patient had horizontal nystagmus and disorders when walking. The physical examination showed a bluish coloration at the level of his fingers on his lower right limb, with suspicion of first instance vasculitis. After several tests, the patient was diagnosed as suffering from prostate cancer, bilateral orchiectomy was performed on him, and the following treatments were recommended: oncologic, antihypertensive, antidiabetic and oral anticoagulation.

By Fernando Stalin Freire Villón, Gabriela Alexandra Narváez Bravo, Kevin Andrés Tierra Aguirre, Roberto Albán Espinoza, Claudia Clavijo Rosales

2022-02-01 Case Report
Interstitial pneumonia as a manifestation of COVID-19: case report

Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia is a group of progressive diseases of unknown origin affecting the lower respiratory tract; diffuse alveolitis and disorders in the alveolar structures characterize it. This report presents the case of a male 52-year-old patient with pulmonary nodule antecedents suspected of having tuberculosis and a positive PCR test. He went to the doctor because he had a 15-day evolution manifestation characterized by a thermal increase and malaise. The physical examination showed dyspneic facies with a semi-fowler attitude and kept psychomotor activity, as well as the presence of dry oral mucosa. The other parameters were normal. After several tests, he was diagnosed as having viral COVID-19 pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome; due to the serious condition of the patient, he was transferred to the ICU, where he was treated with oxygen therapy via a mask with a reservoir for SAT >90%, Ringer´s lactate 1,000 cubic centimeters + 2 grams of vitamin C + 5 cubic centimeters of complex B (40 milliliters per hour) and antibiotic therapy with Piperacillin Tazobactam 4.5 grams in slow diffusion in 3 hours every 6 hours.

By Samantha Cordero Díaz, Pablo Cárdenas Palacios, Cindy Chávez López, Eliana Espinoza Tapia, Claudia Clavijo Rosales

2023-03-30 Case Report
Atypical presentation of a case of renal tuberculosis and cardiac muscle bypass

Tuberculosis is an endemic disease in several countries, despite having treatment and cure available. The most common form is pulmonary, but it can also affect any other organ or tissue. A male patient, 43 years old, with important sociodemographic history, as he lives at 3000 meters above sea level in a rural area of the Ecuadorian Sierra, presents acute weight loss and asthenia. He had two hospital admissions with an interval of 1 month, during which he required intensive care for comprehensive management. During the first hospitalization, he presented abdominal septic shock, acute renal failure, and acute myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography was performed, which revealed a muscular bridge in the anterior descending artery. During the second hospitalization, he presented septic shock with a urinary focus. As the symptoms were similar and no underlying diagnosis was found to trigger instability, a simple and contrast-enhanced CT scan was performed, which showed suggestive images of a renal abscess and bilateral apical nodules with a tree-in-bud pattern in the chest. Therefore, a study was performed to detect tuberculosis.

By Kerly Apolo Loayza, Mónica Gabriela Vásconez Chérrez, Sonnia Villegas Paredes, Sebastián Orozco Torres

2023-05-17 Case Report
Diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in a pediatric patient with anencephaly, hydrocephalus and epilepsy: Case report

Introduction: A 5-month-old female patient with an intrauterine diagnosis at 5 months of anencephaly plus hydrocephalus with a poor prognosis. Obtained by caesarean section at term. She stayed 4 days in pediatric intensive care and was then discharged. He attended due to a clinical picture characterized by a convulsive crisis at 7:00 p.m. and 8:00 p.m. She was hospitalized for 22 days presenting macrocephalus, tension hydrocephalus, external ventricular drain in place, gaze at the rising sun, spontaneous eye opening. She is under sedation and analgesia with infusion of midazolam and fentanyl, connected to mechanical ventilation through an endotracheal tube.
Case report: present a complex clinical case where the patient presents anencephaly plus hydrocephalus and epilepsy without evidence of cerebral lobes.
Conclusion: Anencephaly, hydrocephalus and epilepsy are serious neurological conditions, due to the significant impact that can be present in the life of the person suffering from these medical conditions. It is extremely rare that the patient presents epilepsy and each time the episodes are more violent until the loss of consciousness.

By Byron Rubén Martínez Salazar, Luis Eduardo Martínez Salazar, Jennifer Belen Mosquera Arevalo, Christian Gabriel Villa Clavijo, Lady Alexandra Tapia Quiroga

2023-06-07 Case Report
Congeneric bites, a challenge in daily clinical practice. Case presentation and minireview

Bite wounds can range from simple local injuries to involvement of the musculature, blood vessels, organs and bones, often leading to complex treatments including surgery and hospitalization. These wounds present a phenomenon known as the "iceberg" effect, which can hide the true severity of the injury and require more invasive management to prevent complications, although these are frequent. Comprehensive management of the patient is fundamental for an adequate resolution of the pathology and depends on several factors, such as the time in which the wounds are approached (known as the "golden period"), which is crucial to prevent contaminated wounds from becoming colonized or infected wounds. In addition, the patient's general health and nutritional status, among other aspects, also play a role. Complications following mammalian bites are frequent and constitute one of the most common consultations in emergency departments. In this work, we describe the evolution of a case of generalized systemic infection due to a domestic dog bite, which was successfully treated and discharged in 28 days. Proper preparation of the wound using various methods, dressings and constant instillation systems of antiseptic solutions that favor healing in an optimal environment, as well as the application of V.A.C. negative pressure therapy, allowed the case to be resolved in 28 days. This demonstrates that a correct classification, an adequate approach and knowledge of current strategies in advanced wound management shorten recovery times, improve the patient's quality of life by avoiding daily manipulations, and result in an acceptable cost/benefit for the pet owner.

By Diego Xavier Medina Valarezo, Juan Carlos Armas Ariza, Martha Susana Camacho Pazmiño, Fanny E. Gallardo Arrieta, Kevin Fabián Astudillo Vallejo, Oscar Caicho Caicedo

2023-06-01 Case Report
Diagnosis and management of acute pulmonary thromboembolism: case report

Background: Pulmonary Thromboembolism (PTE) is an important cause of hospitalization, morbidity and mortality. At the present time it represents one of the most frequent cardiovascular diseases.
Case report: A 73-year-old female patient with various comorbidities, who was admitted due to severe respiratory distress and hemodynamic instability, was diagnosed with pneumonia, pulmonary hypertension, and a Computed Axial Tomography revealed a tumor mass with alveolar hemorrhage.
Evolution: During the hospital stay, the patient maintained high oxygen needs and hemodynamic instability despite support maneuvers. The alveolar hemorrhage that she presents determines the prophylactic thrombus treatment. The imaging study indicates a tumor mass associated with alveolar hemorrhage and a very high probability of developing deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and subsequent pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). Reason for which FAST echo was performed, which evidenced deep vein thrombosis in the right common femoral vein, total occlusion of the superficial femoral artery with preserved flow in the deep femoral artery. Absent distal pulses with arterial flow in monophasic anterior tibial with high diastole IR: 0.6, and Ankle arm index 0.5, posterior echocardiogram with dilation of the right cavities, PSAP of 54 mmHg and McConnel's sign. Patient intervenes with a massive pulmonary thromboembolism that results in death.
Conclusions: Pulmonary embolism is a pathology that occurs in 1 per 1000 cases. Individualizing each case can be decisive to safeguard the life of a patient.

By Edison Bolívar Ortiz Freire, Christian Alexander Lema Guaraca, Pedro Manolo García Sarmiento, Germania Elizabeth Ortiz Freire, Mateo Sebastián García Sarmiento, Rubén Argenis Maldonado Cabrera

2023-07-11 Case Report
Diagnosis and management of acute pyomyositis associated with bacterial endocarditis: case report

Background: Pyomyositis associated with bacterial endocarditis constitute clinical entities with significant repercussions on the patient's health status. They represent infectious emergencies whose microorganism involved is Staphylococcus Aureus in more than half of the cases.
Case Report: A 59-year-old male patient, with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, was admitted due to a clinical picture compatible with cellulitis and deep vein thrombosis in the left lower limb. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed, evidencing the presence of a collection (abscess) at the level of the gastrocnemius muscle and bacteremia due to methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus Aureus. An echocardiogram was performed with the presence of vegetations on the aortic heart valve.
Evolution: During the hospital stay, the patient remained hemodynamically stable with torpid evolution of the lesion in the left leg due to microorganism resistance to the antibiotics initially established (cefazolin and clindamycin). Targeted antibiotic treatment is performed based on the results of the blood culture and abscess culture based on oxacillin, which shows significant improvement in the lesion and the patient's health status. A new control echocardiogram was performed with a decrease in the diameter of the vegetation on the heart valve. Medical discharge was decided after the results of the control blood culture with a report of absence of bacterial growth, with continuation of antibiotic therapy for 4 more weeks.
Conclusions: Pyomyositis and bacterial endocarditis are pathologies that require multidisciplinary management due to their high risk of morbidity and mortality. Individualizing each case can be decisive in safeguarding the patient's life and ensuring an adequate full recovery of his health.

By Christian Alexander Lema Guaraca, Victoria Guadalupe Macas Valarezo, Vicente Javier Guerrero Arcentalez, Jacqueline Briggithe Criollo Mendieta, Oscar Esteban Maldonado Espinoza, Diego Germán Cajamarca Velesaca, Estuardo Javier Carrión Abad, Jose Freddy Villa Pallashco

2023-10-10 Case Report
Hypothyroidism and growth hormone deficiency as a complication of Turner Syndrome: Case Report

Turner syndrome is a rare disease with a global prevalence of 64 per 100 000 live births, due to the total or partial loss of a sex chromosome of the 45X pair, mosaic karyotype. It is associated with multiple complications such as hypothyroidism, growth hormone deficiency and other endocrine disorders.
Case presentation: Female patient, 27 years old, who since childhood presented severe growth problems, in addition to psychomotor problems; with the passage of time there was no improvement in her height for age, so a genetic disorder was suspected. At 9 years of age, a genetic karyotype test was performed and the diagnosis of Turner Syndrome was confirmed. To this diagnosis was added: hypothyroidism, hypogonadism and osteopenia of the hip and spine. Therefore, her treatment was mainly based on hormone replacement therapy with estrogen and progesterone derivatives, such as estradiol and medroxyprogesterone acetate until she was 16 years old; in addition to growth hormone. Over the years her clinical picture improved significantly, especially in her growth, reaching her final height of 1.49 cm.
Conclusion: Currently the patient remains stable with a lucid neurological condition, continues with her hormone replacement therapy for hypothyroidism and osteopenia.

By Homero Abel Chacho Aucay, Manuel Patricio Naula Naula, Gabriela Estefanía Peralta Lata, María Emilia Tenorio Córdova, María Rosa Chimborazo Guaman, Angela del Rosario Guncay Salazar, Tania Mariela Guzmán Nugra

2023-08-03 Case Report
Clinical case report of non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma in a 40-year-old woman

Introduction: Adenocarcinoma has now become the most prevalent lung cancer in women and in non-smokers, it is slow growing and frequently metatizes. This pathology presents a very low survival.
Objective: To develop a clinical case about a female patient diagnosed with non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma.
Clinical case: A 40-year-old female patient who presented pain in the left hemithorax of mild to moderate intensity, without toxic habits in addition to dry, sporadic cough and weight loss of 30 pounds with an evolution of 3 months.
Conclusions: Lung cancer is the leading cause of death in the world among malignant tumors, in this particular case what is striking is the a etiopathology of genetic origin due to a mutation in the ALK gene that presents a partial response of 55% to treatment with Alectinib.

By Melany Tatiana Pacheco Peláez, Jorge Cristopher Vega Toapanta, Edgar David Brito Carmona, Christian Gabriel Villa Clavijo, Geovanny Israel Destruge Molina

2023-08-21 Case Report
Peritoneal Tuberculosis in a 56-year-old male patient with a history of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Case Report

Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a major global problem with significant morbidity and mortality. It ranks as the 10th leading cause of death worldwide. Peritoneal tuberculosis most commonly occurs after the reactivation of latent tuberculosis foci in the peritoneum established through hematogenous spread from a primary pulmonary focus. Its clinical presentation is usually nonspecific and insidious, and early diagnosis is important to establish specific treatment. The most recurrent symptoms are ascites, abdominal pain, weight loss and fever. The diagnosis of PTB is usually incidental, in most cases in the course of an acute surgical abdomen.
Clinical case and evolution: A 56-year-old male patient with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus diagnosed 3 years ago on current treatment with metformin, refers a clinical picture for 3 months characterized by generalized diffuse mild abdominal pain Eve 3/10, accompanied by hyporexia, anorexia, weight loss. Laboratory tests that show leukocytosis and thrombosis suggestive of infection, electrolytes with hyperosmolar hyponatremia, altered nitrogen compounds, abdominal physical examination shows positive ascitic wave, abdominal pain persists during hospitalization, endoscopy is performed without findings of infection, parenthesis is performed due to persistent ascites, diffuse abdominal pain is exacerbated at rest plus thermal rise greater than 38 degrees. Antibiotic therapy and emergency exploratory laparotomy were decided.

By Devora Estefania Manzano Quisimalin, Luis Emilio Merino Gualan, María José Vega Vélez, Vanesa Elizabeth Sarango Guamaní, Carlos Andrés Carrión Granda

2023-09-14 Case Report
Small bowel intussusception in an adult, a rare surgical emergency. Case report and literature review

Intussusception or intussusception in the adult corresponds to a rare etiology of intestinal obstruction representing only 0.08% of abdominal surgeries in the world, unlike its presentation in childhood most of these have an underlying organic cause. We present the case of a 55-year-old middle-aged woman with no underlying pathology who presented with repetitive symptoms of intestinal pseudo-occlusion. With the help of imaging studies, the site of obstruction was visualized and she underwent exploratory laparotomy where small bowel invagination was evidenced due to a tumorous process, resection and anastomosis were performed with a rapid recovery and then small bowel adenocarcinoma was confirmed. In conclusion, we must take into account that this rare pathology could occur in patients with signs of occlusion not so clear in order to offer an effective and timely surgical treatment.

By Héctor Daniel Montes Lainez, Cristhian Xavier Chica Lozada, Ruth Alexandra Díaz Vega, Luis Eduardo Naranjo Tipan, Kely Elvira Arias Quevedo, Ginger Maite González Yépez, Francisco Adrian Calderón Moreano, Gabriela Mercedes Ramírez Moya, Virginia Andrea González Palacios, Manuel Andrés Quinteros Morán, Stephanie Susana Alberca Bonilla, Jean Carlos Cabrera Espinoza, Pamela Elizabeth Vega Chanalata

2023-01-01 Special paper
Salud, Ciencia y Tecnología, pioneering open peer review and post-publication: a necessity and a challenge

As of January 1, 2023, the journal Salud, Ciencia y Tecnología will adopt the open peer review and post-publication system. Open peer review responds to a transparent open science model, based on open identity of reviewers, open and unstructured review reports, participation and open interaction of the scientific community. On the other hand, post-publication peer review is based on the generation of versions of the manuscript as it is revised and/or corrected by the authors, with immediate availability after the initial editorial review and with traceability of the "evolution" of the scientific article. Both review processes combined allow for an open and frameless debate and public discussion of the research results. In addition, from a pedagogical/didactic point of view, they serve to learn how to improve scientific writing processes and as a reference for teaching research. According to DOAJ data, 212 scientific journals have adopted open peer review, but only 13 of them have adopted post-publication peer review; however, there are no Latin American journals that combine both processes. The editorial team of Salud, Ciencia y Tecnología feels a commitment to open science and will accompany authors and reviewers in this transition process that will undoubtedly be full of challenges, successes and failures; and if we stop to think a little, it is the essence of science to innovate, transform and continuously improve.

By Adrián Alejandro Rojas Concepción, William Castillo González, Carlos Oscar Lepez, Mabel Cecilia Bonardi, Adrián Alejandro Vitón-Castillo, Patricia Alonso Galbán, Carlos Canova Barrios, Felipe Machuca-Contreras, Javier Gonzalez-Argote

2023-01-02 Special paper
How do editorial processes work in Salud, Ciencia y Tecnología? An article of dynamic questions

Open peer review provides greater transparency in the peer review process by allowing authors and readers to see who has been involved in the process and how they have influenced the work. It can also help to avoid bias and bias in the review. On the other hand, post-publication peer review (PPR) is conducted similarly to pre-publication peer review, in which experts evaluate as well as provide feedback on the quality and contribution to scientific knowledge of the corresponding manuscript. However, unlike pre-publication review, PPR does not aim to decide whether a paper should be published or not, but to provide feedback and improvements to already published work. This article aims to clarify a set of doubts about the editorial process of the journal Salud, Ciencia y Tecnología. Any change is a dynamic learning process, and we hope to live up to a high level of open science and editorial standards. As an editorial team, we consider the journal Salud, Ciencia y Tecnología to be "a wrong journal on the right track", for this reason we thank the authors, reviewers and readers for their trust and dedication.

By Adrián Alejandro Rojas Concepción, Adrián Alejandro Vitón-Castillo, Carlos Alberto Gómez Cano, Carlos Canova Barrios, Carlos Oscar Lepez, Felipe Machuca-Contreras, Javier Gonzalez-Argote, Mabel Cecilia Bonardi, Patricia Alonso Galbán, William Castillo-González

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